Geography - GIS  

Modern Geography
Human Geography, Nature/Society, and Regional Geography (GEOG)
GEOG 501 Principles of Geography -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Prereq: graduate standing, member of the Teacher Education Program, and permission of department.
Introduction to human and physical geography. Open to students who have never had a college level geography course.

GEOG 621 Geography of the United States -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Prereq: graduate standing, member of the Teacher Education Program, and permission of department.
A regional analysis of the major features of the natural and cultural environment of the United States. Not open to students who have had a similar college-level course.

GEOG 621.51 Geography of New York State -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Prereq: graduate standing, member of the Teacher Education Program, and permission of department.
An analysis of the major features of the natural and cultural environment of New York State. Topics include sequence settlement, land use, economic and social interrelationships with the natural environment, and environmental problems. Not open to students who have had a similar college-level course.

GEOG 701 Geographic Thought and Theory -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Evening/Fall only.
Identification of research trends; major schools of thought; scientific method and exceptionalism; reviews of current research.

GEOG 701.54 Geographic Research Design -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr.
Topics include conceptualization and operationalization of a research design with specific focus on data specification and data gathering techniques. Quantitative and qualitative methods are reviewed. A key product is the development of a detailed research proposal.

GEOG 702 Research Topics in Geography -- 15 hrs including conference, 1 cr. Evening/Fall only.
Introduction to central research themes in geography and the current research being undertaken by department faculty.

GEOG 703 Location Theory and Spatial Analysis -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOG 221 or GEOG 341 or equivalent.
Spatial interaction; diffusion; development; decision making. Methods of spatial analysis; spatial modeling.

GEOG 704 Topics in Human Geography -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr.
Studies of specialized areas with human geography. May be repeated for credit as topics change.

GEOG 705 Cultural and Social Geography -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOG 341 and GEOG 347 or permission of instructor.
Review of recent work in cultural and social geography; emphasis on literature, critiques.

GEOG 705.28 Introduction to Environmental Ethics -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Pending Senate approval.
Do animals have rights? Do ecosystems have interests? Are humans separate from the environment? How have the answers to these questions been shaped by scientific understanding and religious belief? How should they be? The development of environmental philosophies and ethics, and how they have interacted with controversial environmental issues, will be explored. Reding assignments include canonical and contemporary philosophers as well as environmentalists. In additional to theory, we will discuss the applications of these ideas in local to global environmental problems. The course will focus on ethical philosophies from the western world, but non-western philosophies might also be discussed.

GEOG 705.62 Post-Socialist Geographies -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Prereq: GEOG 278 or permission of instructor. Pending Senate approval.
For graduate students in geography, anthropology, economics, sociology, environmental psychology and other related fields. This course examines major political, economic, and social theories that aim to explain the current transformations in post-socialist countries. The neo-liberal theories and policies of transition to capitalism and their consequences are critically examined. The devastating effects of capitalism uncontrolled by democratic governments and labor are discussed.

GEOG 705.72 GIS Law -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Prereq: one course in GIS or permission of instructor.
This course in geographic information systems law will acquaint students with legal issues raised by GIS. The course is organized to confront legal issues in the order that they might arise during the life cycle of a typical GIS Project.

GEOG 706 Latin Americanist Geography -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr.
Major paradigms, theories and methodologies in geographic research on Latin America including historical, cultural, social, economic, urban, physical, and environmental geography.

GEOG 708 The Geographies of Urban Space -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Prereq: graduate standing and GEOG 701 or GEOG 743 or equivalent or permission of instructor.
Critical perspectives on urban development and internal urban space. Latest literature in urban political economy, feminist, and post-structuralist geography with a focus on class, gender and ethnicity in urban space.

GEOG 709 Geography of Selected World Regions -- 45 hours including conference, 3 cr.
Intensive examination of physical and social geography of specific world regions. (Each semester one or two regions will be covered. Field courses may be offered during intersession periods.)

GEOG 709.57 Regional Geography of the New York Metropolitan Area -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Pending Senate approval.
Geographic basis of the development and functioning of the NYC metropolitan area. Physical site and situation; spatial aspects of its political, social and economic structures.

GEOG 710 Economic Geography -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr.
Interactions between people and the natural environment on economic, political and cultural endeavors. Formation of labor markets and their segmentation by class, gender, and ethnicity/race. Change in production systems and economic globalization. Interconnections between economic systems across local, regional, national, and international scales.

GEOG 711 Environmental Conservation -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr.
Interrelationship of natural systems; environmental crisis; environmental movement; specific problem areas.

GEOG 711.56 Coastal Zone Management -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Pending Senate approval.
The increasing pressure on the coast is demonstrated with competing demand that leads to conflicts with respect to the carrying capacity of our most precious resource area. The course addresses critical issues related to environmental constraints, the carrying capacity of coastal areas and the need for coastal zone management.

GEOG 712 Geography of Sustainable Development in Developing Countries -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Prereq: graduate standing and one course focusing on development of a developing region, or permission of instructor.
Analysis of factors that influence sustainable development, e.g., available resources, environment, population, food producation, water supply in developing countries.

GEOG 713 Rural Water Supply in Developing Regions -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Prereq: graduate standing and one course focusing on development of a developing region, or permission of instructor.
Quality, problems, management, and sustainability of rural water supply and sanitation in developing countries.

GEOG 715 International Pollution Issues -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr.
Global environmental hazards are covered. Issues ranging from intergovernmental efforts to document pollution, to the policy needed to curtail pollution of the future will be addressed. A focus will be on transboundary air and water pollution.

GEOG 721 Transporation Geography -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr.
A geographic study and modeling of transporation routes and their influences on the location of economic activity.

GEOG 732.54 GIS Technology, Science, and Society -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Prereq: graduate standing and one course in GIS or permission of instructor. Pending Senate approval.
Critical evaluation of GIS technology from critical geographic, feminist, and post-structuralist perspectives. Students will be exposed to a wide range of literature known as science and technology studies and "Critical GIS." It focuses on social construction of technology and GIS more specifically, including the technology itself, the effect of institutional context, social manipulations of GIS, its contradictions, and possibilities beyond mainstream approach.

GEOG 741 Population Geography -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr.
Theoretical and empirical analyses of spatial distribution of population. Particular emphasis is on processes and impacts of migration, residential mobility, and immigration.

GEOG 742 International Migration & Ethnicity -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr.
Examination of historic and contemporary international migration patterns. Spatial demographic impacts of immigration policy in the United States with a focus on major urban centers. Comparative analyses of ethnic and racial minorities in the United States.

GEOG 743 Urban Geographic Theory -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr.
Spatial analysis of contemporary and theoretical issues concerning the economic growth, transportation, land use, social segregation, and urban governance in metropolitan areas.

GEOG 772 Field Work in Peru -- one month summer intersession in Peru, 3 cr. Prereq: permission of department.
Regional field study of the geography of Peru. Topics include physical, environmental, historical, cultural, urban, political, agricultural, religious, and economic geographies in various ecological zones. Taught in English. Acceptance into Hunter College Study Abroad Program and fee for transportation, accommodations required.

GEOG 791, 792, 793 Independent Research in Geography -- 1, 2, or 3 cr. Prereq: permission of instructor or graduate adviser.
Intensive individual research in geography under supervision of a member of the graduate faculty. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits with permission of the graduate adviser.

GEOG 799 Thesis Research in Geography -- 1-6 cr. Prereq: GEOG 701 and permission of department.
Open to students electing the thesis option only. May be repeated for credit but only one credit may be applied to satisfy degree requirements.


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Geographic Techniques and Methods (GTECH)
GTECH 702 Multivariate Statistics in Geography -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Prereq: Introductory Statistics or equivalent or permission of instructor.
Multivariate analysis of spatial data; prediction, analysis, and explanation of spatial and environmental phenomena; statistical software packages; lab exercises.

GTECH 703.XX Special Topics in Quantitative Methods -- 45-75 hours including conference , 2-4 cr. Prereq: GTECH 701 and GTECH 702 or equivalent or permission of department.
Advanced work on topics related to quantitative methods.

GTECH 703.56 Applied Statistics in Hydrology -- Pending Senate approval.
This course is designed as an applied, group research project for graduate students. It will be given on an irregular basis, and will be a reseach project based on a current problem. The goal of the course is to write an article of publishable quality. The prerequisites will vary depending on the problem being studied, but will usually include two courses: (1) either hydrology, climatology, or a similar course; and (2) multivariate statistics in geography, or a similar course.

GTECH 704 Seminar in Spatial Modeling -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Prereq: GTECH 701 or equivalent or permission of instructor.
Development of advanced spatial models; in-depth consideration of specific topics; statistical modeling, mathematical modeling, computer modeling, and simulation.

GTECH 704.52 Introduction to Environmenal Modeling -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Pending Senate approval.
Introduction to the techniques and vocabulary of numerical modeling of environmental systems using differential equations. Focus on systems dynamics.

GTECH 705 Spatial Data Analysis -- 60 hours including conference (2 lec, 2 lab), 3 cr. Prereq: one course in statistics. Either one course in mapping science or GIS, or permission of instructor.
Methods for analyzing environmental and social spatial data sets. Topics include point pattern analysis, spatial clustering methods, spatial autocorrelation, and kriging.

GTECH 710 Introduction to GIS -- 60 hours including conference (2 lec, 2 lab), 3 cr.
Thorough introduction to geographic information systems with an emphasis on spatial data handling and project management.

GTECH 711 Earth From Above -- 60 hrs including conference (2 lec, 2 lab weekly), 3 cr. Prereq: GTECH 710 or permission of instructor.
Use and interpretation of air photos and satellite remote sensing images as applied to agriculture, forestry, urbanization, oceanography and atmosphere; lab exercises.

GTECH 712 Remote Sensing of Environment -- 60 hrs including conference (2 lec, 2 lab weekly), 3 cr. Prereq: GTECH 711 or permission of instructor.
Fundamental concepts of remote sensing of environment, satellite sensor systems and their applications, and basic concepts of image analysis.

GTECH 713 Digital Image Processing -- 90 hrs including conference (2 lec, 4 lab weekly), 4 cr. Prereq: GTECH 712, multivariate statistics, elementary linear algebra.
Quantitative processing of digital imagery; enhancement, information extraction, classification; algorithms, registration, rectification; lab exercises.

GTECH 714 Special Topics in Remote Sensing -- 45-90 hrs including conference, 2-4 cr.
Advanced work on topics in remote sensing; may be repeated for credit; lab work. Prerequisite and lecture/lab mix to vary with topic.

GTECH 715 Seminar in Remote Sensing -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Prereq: GTECH 712; GTECH 713 recommended.
Examination and discussion of current published research work in remote sensing. Topic to vary with instructor and student interest.

GTECH 721 Advanced Cartography -- 105 hrs including conference (1 lec, 6 lab weekly), 4 cr. Prereq: GTECH 710 or equivalent.
Acquisition of professional-level skills in manual cartography; production and photographic methods; scribing; color separations; use of automated techniques; lab exercises.

GTECH 722 Automated Cartography -- 75 hrs including conference (1 lec, 4 lab weekly), 3 cr. Prereq: GTECH 710 or equivalent.
Computer and other automated applications; theory and algorithms; production of computer-generated maps; lab exercises.

GTECH 723.XX Seminar in Cartographic Research -- 45 hrs including conference, 3 cr. Prereq: GTECH 721, GTECH 722, or GTECH 731.
Development of cart

GIS

What is GIS?
INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS
STUDY GUIDE EXAM #1 FALL 2009

(Chapters 1-3 and 9 from Introduction to Geographical Information Systems; Classroom Assignments 1-3; and ArcGIS Workbook Exercises 1-4)

The following are topics, concepts, and terms that you should be able to define, identify and describe:

Geographic Information System definitions
History of GIS what was the origination of GIS? Why?
Coordinate Systems what kind are there?
Projections what are these? How do they affect the display of data in a map?
Datums what are these? How do we use them in GIS?

Examples of applications and uses of GIS
Limitations of a paper map
What is georeferenced data?
Vector Data Model vs Raster Data Model? Whats the difference?
What is topology and how does it work in GIS?
Whats the difference between spatial and non-spatial data?
Feature or attribute?

Components of geographic data, spatial data,
Why Use a GIS?
GIS vs. CAD vs. DBMS vs. Computer Mapping

Data Formats and Sources: What are sources of GIS data? How can data be collected and stored for GIS? What is photogrammetry, COGO, Trace vs Heads-up Digitizing, GPS data collection?

Map Document Storage how does ArcView store your project? What are some of the advantages/disadvantages of this storage?

Basic Computer terms: bits vs bytes, Programming languages (C, Basic, etc.), DOS, RAM, ROM. Temporary data storage devices vs permanent data storage devices.

Geographic Information Systems as an Integrating Technology
Table on context

Intro to GIS
Intro to ArcGIS software
ArcGIS Document Storage
GIS Basics
Coordinate Systems, Datums and Projectio
Data Formats and Sources
Data Management, Part 1
Data Management, Part 2
Data Sources; Inputs and Outputs
Remote Sensing
Data Quality
Making a Map in GIS
GIS and Cartography
GIS Analysis Functions
GIS and GPS
Legal and Ethical Issues in GIS
Implementing a GIS

GIS Analysis Functions
1. Spatial Data Functions
o Format Transformations
o Geometric Transformations
o Projection Transformations
o Conflation
o Edge-matching
o Editing Functions
o Line Coordinate Thinning
2. Attribute Data Functions
o Retrieval
o Classification
o Verification
3. Integrated Analysis of Spatial and Attribute Data
o Overlay
o Neighborhood Function
o Point-in-Polygon and Line-In-Polygon
o Topographic Functions
o Thiessen Polygon
o Interpolation
4. Cartographic Modeling
5. Connectivity Functions
6. Output Functions

GIS - WIKI

A revised definition of

GIS

GIS lecture1-2 and all links
Database models
Creating a database
GIS database applications
Developments in databases

Data input and editing
Methods of data input
Data editing
Towards an integrated database

Data analysis
Learning outcomes
Introduction
Measurements in GIS lengths, perimeters and areas
Queries
Reclassification
Buffering and neighbourhood functions
Integrating data map overlay
Spatial interpolation
Analysis of surfaces
Network analysis

Analytical modelling in GIS
Process models
Modelling physical and environmental processes
Modelling human processes
Modelling the decision-making process
Problems with using GIS to model spatial processes

Output: from new maps to enhanced decisions
Maps as output
Non-cartographic output
Spatial multimedia
Mechanisms of delivery
GIS and spatial decision support

Introducing to GIS lecture1

HISTORY OF GIS
HISTORY OF GIS
A. INTRODUCTION
B. HISTORIC USE OF MULTIPLE THEME MAPS
C. EARLY COMPUTER ERA
D. CANADA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (CGIS)
Purpose
Technological innovations
Key innovative ideas in CGIS
Key individual
E. HARVARD LABORATORY
The Harvard packages
Key individuals
F. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
DIME files
Urban atlases
G. ESRI
REFERENCES
This unit provides a very brief review of some important milestones in the development of GIS. Of course, it is likely there are some important stages we have omitted. It is perhaps a little too early yet to get a good perspective on the history of GIS.
UNIT 23 - HISTORY OF GIS
A. INTRODUCTION
development of GIS was influenced by:
o key groups, companies and individuals
o timely development of key concepts
content of this unit is concerned with North America
outside North America, significant developments occurred at the Experimental Cartography Unit in the UK
o history of this group has been documented by Rhind (1988)
this unit draws on a preliminary "genealogy of GIS" assembled in 1989 by Donald Cooke of Geographic Data Technologies Inc.
B. HISTORIC USE OF MULTIPLE THEME MAPS
idea of portraying different layers of data on a series of base maps, and relating things geographically, has been around much longer than computers
o maps of the Battle of Yorktown (American Revolution) drawn by the French Cartographer Louis-Alexandre Berthier contained hinged overlays to show troop movements
o the mid-19th Century "Atlas to Accompany the Second report of the Irish Railway Commissioners" showed population, traffic flow, geology and topography superimposed on the same base map
o Dr. John Snow used a map showing the locations of death by cholera in central London in September, 1854 to track the source of the outbreak to a contaminated well - an early example of geographical analysis
C. EARLY COMPUTER ERA
several factors caused a change in cartographic analysis:
o computer technology - improvements in hardware, esp. graphics
o development of theories of spatial processes in economic and social geography, anthropology, regional science
o increasing social awareness, education levels and mobility, awareness of environmental problems
integrated transportation plans of 1950s and 60s in Detroit, Chicago
o required integration of transportation information - routes, destinations, origins, time
o produced maps of traffic flow and volume
University of Washington, Department of Geography, research on advanced statistical methods, rudimentary computer programming, computer cartography, most active 1958-611:
o Nystuen - fundamental spatial concepts - distance, orientation, connectivity
o Tobler - computer algorithms for map projections, computer cartography
o Bunge - theoretical geography - geometric basis for geography - points, lines and areas
o Berry''s Geographical Matrix of places by characteristics (attributes) - regional studies by overlaying maps of different themes - systematic studies by detailed evaluation of a single layer
D. CANADA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (CGIS)
Canada Geographic Information System is an example of one of the earliest GISs developed, started in the mid ''60''s
is a large scale system still operating today
its development provided many conceptual and technical contributions
Purpose
to analyze the data collected by the Canada Land Inventory (CLI) and to produce statistics to be used in developing land management plans for large areas of rural Canada
the CLI created maps which:
o classify land using various themes: soil capability for agriculture recreation capability capability for wildlife (ungulates) capability for wildlife (waterfowl) forestry capability present land use shoreline
o were developed at map scales of 1:50,000
o use a simple rating scheme, 1 (best) to 7 (poorest), with detailed qualification codes, e.g. on soils map
____________________ 1see pages 62-66 in Johnston, R.J., 1983. Geography and Geographers: Anglo-American Human Geography since 1945, 2nd edition, Edward Arnold (Publishers), London.
may indicate bedrock, shallow soil, alkaline conditions
product of CLI was 7 primary map layers, each showing area objects with homogeneous attributes
o other map layers were developed subsequently, e.g. census reporting zones
perception was that computers could perform analyses once the data had been input
Technological innovations
CGIS required the development of new technology
o no previous experience in how to structure data internally
o no precedent for GIS operations of overlay, area measurement
o experimental scanner had to be built for map input
very high costs of technical development
o cost-benefit studies done to justify the project were initially convincing
o major cost over-runs
o analysis behind schedule
by 1970 project was in trouble
o failure to deliver promised tabulations, capabilities
completion of database, product generation under way by mid 1970s
o main product was statistical summaries of the area with various combinations of themes
o later enhancement allowed output of simple maps
CGIS still highly regarded in late 1970s, early 1980s as center of technological excellence despite aging of database
o attempts were made to adapt the system to new data
o new functionality added, especially networking capability and remote access
o however, this was too late to compete with the new vendor products of 1980s
Key innovative ideas in CGIS
overhead - Key ideas in CGIS
use of scanning for input of high density area objects
o maps had to be redrafted (scribed) for scanning
o note: scribing is as labor intensive as digitizing
vectorization of scanned images
geographical partitioning of data into "map sheets" or "tiles" but with edgematching across tile boundaries
partitioning of data into themes or layers
use of absolute system of coordinates for entire country with precision adjustable to resolution of data
o number of digits of precision can be set by the system manager and changed from layer to layer
internal representation of line objects as chains of incremental moves in 8 compass directions rather than straight lines between points (Freeman chain code)
coding of area object boundaries by arc, with pointers to left and right area objects
o first "topological" system with planar enforcement in each layer, relationships between arcs and areas coded in the database
separation of data into attribute and locational files
o "descriptor dataset" (DDS) and "image dataset" (IDS)
o concept of an attribute table
implementation of functions for polygon overlay, measurement of area, user-defined circles and polygons for query
Key individual
Roger Tomlinson, now with Tomlinson Associates, Ottawa
E. HARVARD LABORATORY
full name - Harvard Laboratory For Computer Graphics And Spatial Analysis
Howard Fisher, moved from Chicago to establish a lab at Harvard, initially to develop general-purpose mapping software - mid 1960s
Harvard Lab for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis had major influence on the development of GIS until early 1980s, still continues at smaller scale
Harvard software was widely distributed and helped to build the application base for GIS
many pioneers of newer GIS "grew up" at the Harvard lab
The Harvard packages
overhead - The Harvard packages
SYMAP
o developed as general-purpose mapping package beginning in 1964
o output exclusively on line printer
 poor resolution, low quality
o limited functionality but simple to use
 a way for the non-cartographer to make maps
o first real demonstration of ability of computers to make maps
o sparked enormous interest in a previously unheard-of technology
CALFORM (late 1960s)
o SYMAP on a plotter
o user avoided double-coding of internal boundaries by inputting a table of point locations, plus a set of polygons defined by sequences of point IDs
o more cosmetic than SYMAP - North arrows, better legends
SYMVU (late 1960s)
o 3D perspective views of SYMAP output
o first new form of display of spatial data to come out of a computer
GRID (late 1960s)
o raster cells could be displayed using the same output techniques as SYMAP
o later developed to allow multiple input layers of raster cells, beginnings of raster GIS
o used to implement the ideas of overlay from landscape architecture and McHarg
POLYVRT (early 1970s)
o converted between various alternative ways of forming area objects: SYMAP - every polygon separately, internal boundaries twice CALFORM - table of point locations plus lists of IDs DIME - see below
o motivated by need of computer mapping packages for flexible input, transfer of boundary files between systems, growing supply of data in digital form, e.g. from Bureau of the Census
ODYSSEY (mid 1970s)
o extended POLYVRT idea beyond format conversion to a comprehensive analysis package based on vector data
o first robust, efficient algorithm for polygon overlay - included sliver removal
Key individuals
Howard Fisher - initiated Lab, development of SYMAP
William Warntz - succeeded Fisher as Director until 1971, developed techniques, theories of spatial analysis based on computer handling of spatial data
Scott Morehouse - move to ESRI was key link between ODYSSEY and the development of ARC/INFO
see Chrisman (1988) for additional information on the Lab and its key personnel
F. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
need for a method of assigning census returns to correct geographical location
o address matching to convert street addresses to geographic coordinates and census reporting zones
o with geographic coordinates, data could be aggregated to user-specified custom reporting zones
need for a comprehensive approach to census geography
o reporting zones are hierarchically related
o e.g. enumeration districts nest within census tracts
1970 was the first geocoded census
DIME files were the major component of the geocoding approach
DIME files
precursor to TIGER, urban areas only
coded street segments between intersections using
o IDs of right and left blocks
o IDs of from and to nodes (intersections)
o x,y coordinates
o address ranges on each side
this is essentially the arc structure of CGIS and the internal structure (common denominator format) of POLYVRT
DIME files were very widely distributed and used as the basis for numerous applications
topological ideas of DIME were refined into TIGER model
o planar enforcement
o 0-, 1- and 2-cell terminology
DIME, TIGER were influential in stimulating development work on products which rely on street network databases
o automobile navigation systems
o driver guides to generate text driving instructions (e.g. auto rental agencies)
o garbage truck routing
o emergency vehicle dispatching
Urban atlases
beginning with the 1970 census
production of "atlases" of computer-generated maps for selected census variables for selected cities
demonstrated the value of simple computer maps for marketing, retailing applications
o stimulated development of current range of PC-based statistical mapping packages
based on use of digital boundary files produced by the Bureau
G. ESRI
Jack Dangermond founded Environmental Systems Research Institute in 1969 based on techniques, ideas being developed at Harvard Lab and elsewhere
1970s period of slow growth based on various raster and vector systems
early 1980s release of ARC/INFO
o successful implementation of CGIS idea of separate attribute and locational information
o successful marriage of standard relational database management system (INFO) to handle attribute tables with specialized software to handle objects stored as arcs (ARC) - a basic design which has been copied in many other systems
o "toolbox", command-driven, product-oriented user interface
 modular design allowed elaborate applications to be built on top of toolbox
ARC/INFO was the first GIS to take advantage of new super-mini hardware
o GIS could now be supported by a platform which was affordable to many resource management agencies
o emphasis on independence from specific platforms, operating systems
initial successes in forestry applications, later diversification to many GIS markets
o expansion to $40 million company by 1988
REFERENCES
Special issue of The American Cartographer Vol 15(3), 1988, on the digital revolution in cartography - contains articles on the Harvard Lab, UK Experimental Cartography Unit, and the history of GIS.
Tomlinson, R.F., 1987. "Current and potential uses of geographical information systems," The North American experience. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 1:203-18. Reviews GIS from beginnings to 1987, and summarizes lessons learned.

DATA MANAGEMENT

MapProjection

DATA MANAGEMENT AND LECTURE3
STATISTICAL PACKAGES

offer a range of types of statistical analysis

data is primarily numerical

may include:
database functions, such as editing, printing reports
capabilities for graphic output, particularly graphs but many also produce maps

common mainframe packages are SAS, SPSS, BMD
available over a wide range of operating systems
some have been "ported" to (rewritten for) the IBM PC

numerous other packages have been developed specifically for the PC DOS environment

S is a commonly available statistical package for UNIX

INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
A. INTRODUCTION


the environment in which a GIS operates is defined by:

hardware - the machinery, including:
a host computer
ranging from a stand-alone microcomputer to a large mainframe supporting many users
several devices for handling input and output

software
the programs that tell the computer what to do
the data the programs will use

this unit provides a brief overview of computer hardware and software so that students will have a basic understanding of how computers operate and will recognize some of the common computer terminology
important topics are covered in greater detail in later units


B. COMPUTER DATA

computer data is coded, manipulated and stored by use of an exclusive two-state condition
in English such two-state forms of information can include yes/no, on/off, open/closed, hole/no hole
in simple electronic terms this two-state condition can be translated for the computer into "switch open/switch closed", meaning that "there is electricity passing through the circuit/there is no electricity passing through the circuit"
note that one of the two exclusive states always exists

if one switch provides two different datum, how much data can we obtain from two switches?
four - there are four combinations of open and closed switches

Binary notation

in computer terminology, this two state condition is represented in binary notation by the use of 1s and 0s

thus, two switches produce four codes - 00, 01, 10, 11
three switches produce eight codes - 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, 111

in mathematical terms:

1 binary digit provides 21 = 2 alternatives
2 binary digits provide 22 = 4 alternatives
3 binary digits provide 23 = 8 alternatives
8 binary digits provide 28 = 256 alternatives

Bits and bytes

each binary digit is called a bit
the complexity of computer circuitry is described in terms of the number of bits that can be transmitted simultaneously
this is determined by the number of wires that run parallel to one another on the circuit-boards
current PCs use 8, 16 and 32 bit paths

a group of 8 bits is called a byte
bytes are the standard unit of measurement of computer data

ASCII coding system

to maximize efficiency, most computers store data in their own internal formats
however, transfer of data requires the use of standard codes which are understood by all systems

the most successful standard is ASCII (pronounced ass- key)
ASCII originated well before computer communication as a code for Teletypes
ASCII assigns the numbers 0 through 127 to 128 characters, including the upper and lower case alphabets, numerals 0 through 9 and various special characters
128 different patterns can be generated using 7 bits in different combinations of on and off
any ASCII character can therefore be coded with 7 bits
in practice, 8 bits (one byte) are used, the extra bit may be used to extend the code to 128 extra characters, or it simply may be redundant

by using binary notation, these codes can be converted into decimal numbers
counting from the right, the 8 bits are numbered 0 through 7, and signify as follows:
Bit: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 128s 64s 32s 16s 8s 4s 2s units


e.g. the combination 01010101 is no 128s, one 64, no 32s, one 16, no 8s, one 4, no 2s and one unit i.e. 64+16+4+1 = 85
in the ASCII code system, code number 85 is an upper case U
thus to store a U, the system stores a byte with the bit pattern 01010101

in ASCII, characters 0 through 32 often perform special functions
e.g. character 7, 00000111, is the BEL character and rings a bell if received by many terminals or devices
e.g. character 12, 00001100, is the FF character and produces a form feed (new page) if received by many printers

computer files which contain information coded in ASCII are easily transferred and processed by different computers and programs
such files are often called "ASCII" or "text" or "coded" files
ASCII characters are the dominant basis for communication between different systems, and communication with peripherals

files which are not ASCII are often coded in "binary" and generally can be processed or understood only by specific programs


C. COMPUTER HARDWARE

computers consist of several different hardware components

Central processing unit (CPU)

the central processing unit is the essential component of a computer because it is the part that executes the programs and controls the operation of all the hardware
powerful computers may have several processors handling different tasks, although there will need to be one central processing unit controlling the flow of instructions and data through the subsidiary processors

the CPUs of PCs are based on a series of processors or "chips" from Intel
"PC" models use the 8088 (8 bit)
"AT" models use the 80286 (8/16 bits)
current high powered machines use the 80386 (full 16 bits) and 80486

the Macintosh CPUs are based on the 68000 series of chips from Motorola

Memory

memory stores input for and output from the CPU as well as the instructions that are followed by the CPU

the amount stored is measured in bits, bytes, Kbytes (K, Kb, 103 bytes), Megabytes (Mb, 106 bytes), Gigabytes (Gb, 109), Terabytes (Tb, 1012)

there are two kinds of memory:

main memory (or internal or primary memory) is essential for the operation of the computer, all data and
instructions must be in main memory first before it can be processed by the computer

most costly memory
in the form of microchips integrated with the computer''s central processor
fastest access - any byte can be accessed equally rapidly (random access, hence it is called RAM)
temporary - since data and instructions are stored in main memory as electrical voltages, power failures cause the loss of all data in main memory
ranges from several hundred Kbytes for typical PC to many Megabytes for mainframes

secondary memory (or auxiliary memory or secondary storage) is used for large, permanent or semi-permanent files
GIS programs and data generally require very large amounts of storage
data storage is covered after this overview of the components of computers

Peripherals

peripherals refer to all the other devices attached to computers that handle input and output
input devices include keyboards, mice, trackballs, digitizers, disk drives
output devices include screens, printers, plotters
those devices important to GIS are examined in later units


D. DATA STORAGE
Storage media


computers can use several different media for storing information
needed to store both raw data and programs

media differ by
storage capacity
speed of access
permanency of storage
mode of access
cost

Fixed disks

most costly memory next to main/internal memory is fixed disk memory

ranges from 10 Megabytes for typical PC to hundreds of Gigabytes in large "disk farms"

random access but slower than internal memory

permanent (i.e. does not disappear when power is turned off), though data can be erased and modified

Dismountable devices

dismountable devices can be removed for storage or shipping, include:
floppy diskettes
up to 1.44 Megabytes for PC - random access
magnetic tapes
tens of Megabytes for standard tape
access is sequential, not random
can take minutes to reach a particular set of data on the tape, depending on where it is stored
optical compact disks (CDs)
around 250 Megabytes per CD
random access, but the delay in reaching a given item of data may be 1 second or more

Volumes

a volume is a single tape, CD, diskette or fixed disk, i.e. a physical unit of storage

Files

a file is a logical collection of data - a table, document, program, map

many files can be stored on a single volume

files are given names
the rules for naming files vary among types of systems

the computer operating system keeps track of files stored in a volume by using a table called a directory
files are identified in the directory by name, size, date of creation and often type of contents

files are often organized into subdirectories so that the user can group files under specific topics

E. SOFTWARE
Programs


a program is a sequence of related instructions, performed one step at a time by the CPU to accomplish some task
programs determine how computers respond to input, what will be displayed and output

there are three types of programs: operating systems, language interpreters and compilers and applications programs

Operating systems

an operating system (OS) is the software which controls the operation of the computer from the moment it is turned on or "booted"
the OS controls all input and output to and from the peripherals as well as the operation of other programs
allows the user to work with and manage files without knowing specifically how the data is stored and retrieved

in multi-user systems, operating systems manage user access to the processor and peripherals and schedule jobs

common operating systems include:
IBM PCs and clones use MS-DOS (often called DOS), although there is some movement to OS/2
UNIX (and similar operating systems such as AIX, XENIX) is the dominant operating system for workstations
mainframes commonly use proprietary operating systems developed by their manufacturers - VMS on DEC''s VAX series, PRIMOS on Prime, CMS on IBM mainframes, etc.

although functions performed by operating systems are similar, it can be very difficult to move files or software from one to another
many software packages run under only one operating system, or have substantially different versions for different operating systems

Compilers and languages

since computers operate on electricity and binary operations, all instructions executed by computers must be provided to the CPU in machine code
however, humans do not have to interact with computers at this level

programs can be written in very specialized languages, called assemblers, which allow programmers to take advantage of the specific capabilities of particular machines by addressing the basic operations directly
these languages are very cryptic and very difficult to use
they are also system specific and cannot be transported from one type of computer to another

most programs are created using standard high level languages such as C, Pascal, FORTRAN, BASIC which are common across most computer systems, from micro to mainframe
such programs are referred to as source code
these languages generally use English words and familiar mathematical structure

a compiler is a program designed to convert a program written in a high level language to the machine instructions of a specific computing system or "platform"
the output of a C compiler for the IBM PC has almost nothing in common with the output of a C compiler for a VAX mainframe

although high level languages are generally used in the development of application packages such as GIS, it is normally compiled for specific platforms before distribution to the public
this is done to protect the commercial interests of the developer

Applications programs

applications programs are programs used for all purposes other than performing operating system chores or writing other programs
includes GIS, word processors, spreadsheets, statistics packages and graphics programs, airline reservation systems, payroll systems


F. EDITORS AND WORD PROCESSORS

are packages designed to modify or edit the contents of files

are most often used to edit written text or programs
editing and creation of files of numerical data is best done with the special purpose editors found in database packages or spreadsheets (see sections G and H)

editors and word processors are increasingly WYSIWYG ("what you see is what you get")

the screen shows a picture of the contents of the file at all times
well-known word processors for the IBM PC include Wordstar, WordPerfect and Microsoft Word

linkage to a printer is essential so that the user can obtain "hard copy" of a file''s contents

many mainframes offer their users several editors
unfortunately there is little standardization of editors

an editor is the most important system to learn after the operating system
it is difficult to make much effective use of a system without one


G. DATABASES

are packages designed to create, edit, manipulate and analyze data

to be suitable for a database, the data must consist of records which provide information on individual cases, people, places, features, etc.

each record may contain several fields each of which contains one item of information
the number and interpretation of the fields must be constant for each class of records
e.g. each record in the class of "streets" may contain fields for name, length, surface, type.
field contents can be of many types - numeric or text, fixed or variable length

there can be several classes of records in a database
e.g. an airline reservation database might have the following classes of records and associated items: passengers: name, phone, flight numbers aircraft: type, registration number, number of seats crew: names of pilot, copilot, cabin crew, home city flight: number, departure and arrival times, aircraft

Functions of a database

creating and editing records, using customized screens

printing reports (summarizes of groups of records), using customized report forms, including subtotals and totals

selecting records based on user-specified rules

updating records based on new information

linking records, e.g. to determine arrival time for a passenger by linking the passenger''s record with the correct flight record

Three types of database

network, hierarchical and relational are different ways of modeling data within a database

although all three are used, the relational model has been most successful within GIS
it is discussed at length later in the course
well-known relational database management systems (RDBMSs) include dBase, Oracle, Info
many of these have been used in specific GISs

many databases use the same language, SQL (Standard Query Language), for formulating queries


H. SPREADSHEETS

are systems which allow the user to work with numerical data in tabular form

column and row totals, percentages etc. are automatically updated as data items are changed

Lotus 1-2-3 is a well-known spreadsheet for the IBM PC


I. STATISTICAL PACKAGES

offer a range of types of statistical analysis

data is primarily numerical

may include:
database functions, such as editing, printing reports
capa

Online Database OECD

Extra
PART I Working with Legends (*.avl)
Community Boundary Layer (combdry)-open an existing legend
By default, when you add combdry, the legend will load automatically because it is referenced to that layer/themes correct values field and has the same name as the parent layer/theme (combdry.avl). Several of the layers/themes found on the T: Drive already have legends associated with them (i.e. roads by surface type). There are also many outdated legends on the T: Drive that will be phased out in the future.
Incorporated Cities with Spheres of Influence (citysphere)-create a new legend
To create a new legend, double-click on the layer/theme that you want to create a legend for. In the Legend Type drop-down box, choose the classification you want to use. For this case, choose Unique Value. Then, in the Values Field drop-down box, choose the correct field within the layers/themes attribute table that has the values that you want to display (this is when the metadata comes in handy). For this case, choose Type. ArcView will assign default colors to all of the unique values listed in the Type field. You can now change the symbols to your preference (i.e. change foreground and outline colors, add a pattern, etc.). Once youre satisfied with the results, click Apply. If you want to save your legend so that you can use it for future projects, click Save and migrate to your directory where you want to save this legend file. It may be useful to have a directory setup before this so that you can remember where this file is located. If you cannot remember, you can always use the Search tool from the Start menu to find the file. For example, search for file name combdry.avl.
General Plan Boundaries (gplan)-load new legend depending on map purpose; to show all designations or combined designations
Zoning Boundaries (zoning)-load new legend depending on map purpose; to show all designations or combined designations
By default, when you add either the zoning or general plan to a new project, ArcView will default to the combined designations legend because the .avl file has the same name (zoning or gplan) as the other files that make up the shapefile and it is referenced to the correct Values Field. If you have an existing project with these layers/themes, you must either load the new legends or add the layers/themes again to your ArcView project.
To load an existing legend, double-click on the layer/theme that you want to find a legend for. The Legend Editor will open. Click load and migrate to the directory where the .avl file is located and pick the filename that is associated with the layer/theme. ArcView will prompt you to choose the correct Values Field. For the zoning layer/theme, use the Grp_class field if you want to load the zoning.avl file (this is the default); use the Zoning field if you want to load the
2
zoning_alldesig.avl (this will list all possible zoning designations). For the general plan layer/theme, use the Grp_class field if you want to load the gplan.avl file (this is the default); use the Gpdes field if you want to load the gplan_alldesig.avl (this will list all possible general plan designations).
Create your own legends for layers/themes you use often. Save the .avl files in your own directory.
*When working with legends, you must become more familiar with the field names and what they describe within each layer/theme table. This is where comprehensive metadata helps.
PART II Transferring Shapefiles to your Computer
Benefits significant speed enhancements when loading, viewing, querying, identifying layers/themes (esp. in some of the large files like parcels, aerial photos, digital topo maps, roads, etc.)
Drawbacks every time the GIS Division makes updates to any of the GIS layers, you are responsible for updating to the new layer/theme information; its possible that you will not copy and paste all of the files correctly resulting in corrupt layers/themes.
Files Associated with a Shapefile:
*.dbf (shapefile attribute table file)
*.shp (shapefile feature geometry storage file)
*.shx (shapefile file lookup index storage file)
*.sbn (spatial index for read-write shapefiles) not always present
*.sbx (spatial index for read-write shapefiles) not always present
*.prj (projections definition file) not always present
*.avl (legend template file) not always present
*.shp.xml (metadata associated with shapefile) not always present
*.ain (attribute index file) not always present
*.aih (attribute index file) not always present
* There are also *.apr files, which are the ArcView Project Files.
If you decide to start saving files to your computer, setup a good directory structure so that you can remember where your files are. For those of you who have the GIS layers saved locally on your computer''s hard drive and the GIS Division makes updates to GIS data layers on the T: Drive, you need to follow the procedure as listed below. Otherwise, some of the files associated with each shapefile will become corrupt and you will experience problems viewing/using them in ArcView:
So....
1) Close all ArcView projects that are currently running on your computer.
2) Open Windows Explorer, migrate to the folder where you have your GIS data saved locally, Select and Delete all existing files associated with the old shapefile (i.e. the parcel layer) on your
3
drive (i.e. parcels.dbf, parcels.prj, parcels.shp, parcels.shp.xml, parcels.shx, and any other files that may be associated with the old shapefile).
3) Migrate to the T: Drive folder that has the updated shapefile (i.e the parcel layer), Select and Copy all files associated with the updated shapefile from the T: Drive (i.e. parcels.dbf, parcels.prj, parcels.shp, parcels.shp.xml, parcels.shx, and any other files that may be associated with the updated shapefile) and Paste these into your local GIS data folder. You must make sure to paste all associated files.
4) After successfully copying and pasting all of the files associated with the new shapefile, you can then open existing ArcView projects, and they will use the newly copied data from your hard drive.
This process will work for all updated GIS shapefiles. Some shapefiles may have additional files associated with them (esp. if they have legends or projections, etc.), so always remember to copy and paste all files associated with each new GIS shapfile. In Windows Explorer, the first part of the file name will always be the same with different file extensions (i.e. parcels.x).
PART III Metadata
What is metadata? Literally, its information about data. It provides a common set of terminology, definitions, and information about values to be provided. They describe the "who, what, where, when, why, and how" of every aspect of the data. Must be continually maintained to aid in organization of internal investment of data and to provide information in data transfers to customers and users. Can be very brief or very detailed.
Located at T:DataMetadata.
Not all layers have metadata associated with them (its an ongoing process).
To view metadata, simply double-click on one of the files (i.e. combdry.htm), this will open the file in your web browser. Scroll down to read more about the layer/theme that its describing. Most important components in the metadata are the overview descriptions or abstracts of the data (can describe the intent and scale of the data) and the descriptions of field values in each layers/themes attribute table. This can be very useful when determining what the coded fields mean in the attribute table of your layer/theme.
Questions/Comments/ arcView training - https://docs.co.nevada.ca.us/dsweb/Get/Document-111059/Arcview%203.x%20Training-Legends,%20Transfer%20Shapefiles,%20&%20Metadata.pdf

Using the ArcIMS HTML Viewer
The basic functions you will be able to perform using the viewer include:

Zooming in to an area and displaying specific information

Database searches by a category or key word

Measuring distances

Creating a buffer zone around a feature

Toolbar Usage

To the right is a close-up view of options you may find on a toolbar.

When a tool is selected from the toolbar menu, the button is
highlighted with a red box indicating it is active.
Normally, the "Zoom In" button is active when first opened.
(See "Zoom In" Tool in the graphic to the right or the table below)

Scroll down for more detail on each tool

Filter Operations

role of remoteness in lanscape character do slide

role of remoteness in lanscape character

role of remoteness in lanscape character

potential application of remoteness mapping

Data Imput

Analysis
http://educationally.narod.ru/linksgis33.html
GIS in COLUMBIA
http://educationally.narod.ru/gis101photoalbum.html
Fundamental Raster GIS Procedures tutorial
http://www.gsd.harvard.edu/gis/manual/raster/index.htm
Data sources for GIS
http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/sources/sources_f.html
If documentation is limited, it is important for you to consider the following questions:

What is the age of the data?
Where did it come from?
In what medium was it originally produced?
What is the areal coverage of the data?
To what map scale was the data digitized?
What projection, coordinate system, and datum were used in maps?
What was the density of observations used for its compilation?
How accurate are positional and attribute features?
Does the data seem logical and consistent?
Do cartographic representations look "clean?"
Is the data relevant to the project at hand?
In what format is the data kept?
How was the data checked?
Why was the data compiled?
What is the reliability of the provider?

Municipal GIS
http://www.peoplegis.com/municipalgis.html
Municipal GIS Resources
http://www.mass.gov/mgis/munigis.htm
GIS for Land Data on Computer
http://www.gerhardbechtold.com/LUPMIS/Manual/42_import_database.html
Importing an .e00 (Arc Interchange) file in ArcGIS 9 - ArcToolbox
http://soa.utexas.edu/crp/gis/arcgis_tips/e00_import.html

Arc/Info coverages are often found in a format called .e00 or Arc Interchange format. For example, you might find a highways.e00 file available for download from a highway department web site. These kinds of files can be imported into ArcGIS using ArcToolbox. Once you have obtained an .e00 file, follow these steps. Note that the following requires that you have ArcInfo Workstation installed on your computer. If you have ArcView 9 only, you can use the Import71.exe file found in the ArcGIS/bin/ folder where the ArcGIS program is installed.

Importing .e00 files using ArcToolbox with ArcInfo workstation installed:

Before you start, note that this import tool does not deal well with folder paths that have space in their names (e.g., like "My Documents"). Therefore, prior to using this tool, you should create a new folder for that file in your C: drive. E.g., if I was importing a TxDot county file for Williamson County called urban246.e00, I should create a folder called williamson in the c:temp folder, and copy my urban246.e00 file to that folder.

Start ArcToolbox by going to Start-Programs-ArcGIS-ArcToolbox

Click on Coverage Tools - Conversion - To Coverage to see the list of available conversion tools

From the tools you see, choose Import from Interchange File

In the dialog box that appears, for Input file, navigate to the location of your .e00 file

For output data set, navigate to the folder in which you want to place the newly imported file

Press OK when you are ready - the process may take a few minutes.

When the importing box goes away, the import should be compete.

The new data set comes in two folders, an INFO folder and what is called a coverage folder (e.g., highways). You need both these folders for the data set to function properly. Use ArcCatalog if you move or copy the data to another location.

Importing .e00 files using Import71.exe, ArcView 9:

Before you start, note that this import tool does not deal well with folder paths that have space in their names (e.g., like "My Documents"). Therefore, prior to using this tool, you should create a new folder for that file in your C: drive. E.g., if I was importing a TxDot county file for Williamson County called urban246.e00, I should create a folder called williamson in the c:temp folder, and copy my urban246.e00 file to that folder.

Locate the Import71.exe file - it should be in the C:arcgisbin folder (or use the Windows search tool to find it)

Run the Import71.exe file by double-clicking on it - a dialog box should appear

Browse to the location of your .e00 file and select that file and its directory path as the input file (e.g., c:tempbarbarawilliamsonurban246.e00)

For your output file, simply specify the name you want for the newly imported file (e.g., txdot) - no directory path is needed, the file will import to the same location as the .e00 file

Be patient - the import process may take 10 minutes or so. You will know when it is done because a small box saying Import Complete will appear over the Import71 dialog box.

After you see the Import Complete notice, start ArcView again and check that the coverage displays properly. A "coverage" is an older GIS data format.

ArcGIS Desktop Tips and Tutorials
http://soa.utexas.edu/crp/gis/arcgis_tips/index.html
ArcGIS Tutorials
GIS Data Available for Download
General - Working with Files
Importing GIS data files
Map and Layout Tips
Data Creation and Manipulation
Area calculations
Raster (grid) data and analysis (including Digital Elevation Models - DEMs)
Working with 3D data using 3D-Analyst
GPS Resources and Instructions

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ArcGIS Tutorials
ArcGIS 8.2 Basics
Working with 2000 Census Data in ArcGIS and Census Tips
General - Working with Files
Decompressing files compressed with the WinZip utility
To decompress with Aladdin Stuffit Expander, simply double-click on the file name (this program is installed on all the GIS computers in Sutton Lab)
Importing GIS files
Importing .e00 (Arc Interchange) files in ArcGIS 9.1
Map and Layout Tips
Interactively labeling features of a layer so that they turn on and off with the layer
Trouble Shooting Coordinate Systems in ArcMap
Defining a Projection/Coordinate System
Data Creation and Manipulation
Creating a new shapefile in ArcGIS
Creating a subset data set of a larger data set (for shape files only)
Geocoding (address-matching) lists of addresses in ArcGIS
Georeferencing digital images and scanned maps
Attribute Tables
Saving Excel files in dBase format
Area Calculations
Calculating Area, Perimeter and Length in ArcGIS
(see also the Conversion Table for changing measurement units (Peter Wallin)
Spatial (Raster Grid) Analysis
Importing USGS Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data
Working with x, y, and z units in Digital Elevation Models
Everything You Want To Know About SDTS (from the GeoCommunity web site for tutorials, software utilities, etc., particularly related to DEMs in SDTS format)
Experimental project: neighborhood boundary perception
3-D Analysis
Creating a 3-D TIN with ArcGIS 3-D Analyst (do this as the first step to create a slope or aspect grid from contour line data)

Creating and analysing layers
http://webhelp.esri.com/arcgisdesktop/9.3/index.cfm?TopicName=Network_analysis_work_flow
The layer properties dialog box
http://webhelp.esri.com/arcgisdesktop/9.1/index.cfm?TopicName=The%20force%20element%20Layer%20Properties%20dialog%20box
Tutorial 1: ArcGIS HSPF Preprocessing Tools
http://www.crwr.utexas.edu/gis/gishydro06/WaterQuality/HSPF/tutorials/1-ToolInstallationAndDescription.htm
An introduction in GIS:concepts, tools...
http://teams.gemstone.umd.edu/classof2009/fastr/Jardine%20Article.pdf
Introduction to Data Analysis
http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/naturalresources/DD5740.html
GIS Analysis Functions
http://homepage.smc.edu/drake_vicki/GIS%20Analysis%20Functions%20(part%201).doc

GIS Analysis Functions
GIS is distinguished from other Information Systems due to its spatial analysis functions

Spatial analysis functions are used to answer questions about the real world using GIS databases as a model of the real world
GIS Analysis Functions
In order to make the most use of the information provided, the right questions must be asked
GIS Analysis Functions
Questions Categories:
What are the data? What are the patterns in the data? What changes are possible in the data?
Functions Categories:
Storage and retrieval of data Constrained query modeling reality
Answers Categories:
Presentation of current data Finding new pattern in data Predicting new information from data
GIS Analysis Functions
By defining the most important answers needed, appropriate questions and analysis methods can be created
Knowing how to combine functions in a GIS system can help produce an intelligent use of the available data
An unfortunate side effect of the computer generation, is the ability to produce worthless information (and very poor maps) at a rapid rate!
GIS Analysis Functions
Spatial analysis techniques are an attempt to create an understandable image of reality.
In Basic Spatial Analysis, data may be analyzed at various levels.
Sorting data in attribute tables for presentation
Arithmetic, Boolean and statistical operations may be performed on attribute tables
New data may be compiled based on original and derived attributes or based on geographical relationships
Within each level, the operations used may be logical, arithmetic, geometric, statistical or a combination of any of these four types
GIS Analysis Functions Basic Spatial Analysis
Logic Operations logical searches in databases normally use set algebra or Boolean algebra
Set Algebra three operators: equal to, greater than, less than and combinations
The practical applications of these include:
Identifying attribute minima or maxima
Selection or isolation of particular values selected for a ranking in a thematic layer
Boolean Algebra: uses the AND, OR, NOR, and NOT operators to test for True or False
Venn diagrams shaded area represent true statements

GIS Analysis Functions
General Arithmetic Functions performed on both attribute and geometric data
Operators include: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponential, square root, and trigonometric functions
Purposes for operations may include:
Reclassification of land use, or soil types
Conversion of distances along roads
Performing numerical operations on either quantitative or qualitative attribute data
GIS Analysis Functions
Attribute data may also be processed to discern new patterns in the data
In the Classification Process, attributes are grouped according to limits set by user
For example: three classes may be set up for the attribute year: A = before 1990; B = 1991-1995; C = 1996-2000.
Each object with a year attribute is assigned a new year-class attribute of A, B or C
GIS Analysis Functions
Reclassification involves changing attribute values without altering geometries only arithmetic and some statistical operations are used to assign new attribute values.
Reclassification of polygons and combining polygons
GIS Analysis Functions
Integrated processing of geometry and attributes is a means by which a GIS can request, retrieve and display all information on each object type represented.
Arithmetic, logical and statistical operations may be performed on the new attribute table.
A new thematic map may be compiled using the geometry and attributes

GIS Analysis Functions
Geographic Information must be organized within a GIS for optimal convenience and efficiency of use
Paper maps organize geographic information as sets of themes roads, streams, land cover types, etc.
Paper maps are constrained by size as to how much geographic area is covered sometimes several maps in a series are used for large geographic areas
Separate maps are necessary to show information at different levels of detail and scales
Paper maps act as both the storage medium and the presentation medium of the geographic data
GIS Analysis Functions
Within a GIS, storage and presentation of geographic data are separate the level of detail of information stored and/or presented is limited to the resources of the technology (hardware and software capabilities)
When presenting data the scale, level of detail of information, and symbols used to represent reality can be selected at the time of production (remember: presentation is possible at a lesser detailed level than was stored, but not at a more detailed level!)
Large geographic areas may be subdivided into smaller units for storage (as separate data files) and the GIS will ensure that adjacent units match along their borders
Different types of thematic information (map layers in a paper map) are treated as data layers in a GIS
GIS Analysis Functions
A data layer is a set of logically related geographic features and attributes

GIS Analysis Functions
The major analysis functions of a GIS can be categorized into four major groups (from GIS: A Management Perspective, by Aronoff)
(1) Maintenance and Analysis of Spatial Data
(2) Maintenance and Analysis of Attribute Data
(3) Integrated Analysis of Spatial and Attribute Data
(4) Output formatting
GIS Analysis Functions
Maintenance and Analysis of Spatial data
These functions are used to transform, edit and assess the accuracy of spatial data files
The capacity to transform source data into a data form used within the GIS system and being able to edit the data files is a basic requirement
Sub-categories include: Format Transformation, Geometric Transformation, Map Projection Transformation, Conflation, Edge Matching, Graphic Element editing, and Line Coordinate thinning

GIS Analysis Functions Spatial Data
Format Transformation The process by which data files are transformed into the data structure and file format used by a GIS
Raster data files to raster-based GIS needs little to no transformation
Vector-based systems - building topology from coordinate data is a necessity
Transformation process may be time-consuming and costly if collected data not in a form suited to GIS I.e. CAD drawings are not topologically structured, and if used in a GIS are difficult to transform
GIS Analysis Functions Spatial Data
Geometric Transformation the process by which one data layer is adjusted to another data for overlay operations
Adjustment operation is called Registration as the different data layers are registered to one common coordinate system or registered to a standard data layer
Relative Position registering multiple layers by identifying common features for registration (roads, streams, etc.). aka Rubber Sheeting (stretching of one data layer to another) (Propagation errors a possibility, if mis-registering!)
Absolute Position registering each data layer, first, individually to same geographic coordinate system then registering to each other (No propagation errors)
GIS Analysis Functions Spatial Data
Transformations between Geometric Projections - a mathematical transformation of a spherical surface (the 3-dimensional globe) to a flat surface (the 2-dimensional map)
Latitude and longitude coordinate system developed to uniquely reference points on the Earths surface
Map projections have inherent distortions in representations of area, shape, distance and direction

GIS Analysis Functions Spatial Data
Conflation the process of reconciling positions of corresponding features in different data layers
An important process in studying changes over time
Conflation functions used to minimize sliver polygon creation by creating a template or standard to which all other layers will be compared and reconciled
Conflation can be a manual or computerized procedure
Used to fix position of shoreline of reservoir (fluctuates over time); baseline position of meandering rivers, etc.
GIS Analysis Functions Spatial Data
Edge Matching adjusting the position of features that extend across map boundaries.
In a GIS, large coverages may be entered from separate map sheets and then organized to present data as a continuous geographic coverage.
Data input errors may not allow map boundaries to align perfectly GIS software makes the necessary adjustment
GIS Analysis Functions Spatial Data
Editing Functions These may include adding, deleting or changing the geographic position of features
Sliver polygons created by polygon overlays and digitizing errors
Operator supervision may be needed to correctly identify and remove these
Line-snapping corrects undershoots by connecting lines to nodes
GIS Analysis Functions Spatial Data
Line coordinate Thinning reduces the quantity of coordinate data stored in a GIS
Subsequent reduction in data volume may increase processing speed of GIS
Degree of thinning must be controlled by GIS operator
GIS Analysis Functions Buffering operations
Buffering is an important spatial analysis function, constraining space around selected land features.
Buffering combines spatial data techniques and cartographic modeling.
Points, lines and polygons can be buffered, as well as raster pixels or sets of pixels
GIS Analysis Functions
Buffering Example: A national historic and archeological site needs to be accessible to the public, while protecting sensitive habitats and valuable features
Setting constraints will allow the GIS to find the best way to protect sensitive areas, while allowing public access. For example:
1 meter buffer for stream banks
2 meter buffer for cliff edges
50 meter buffer for active archeological sites, 10 meter buffer for inactive sites
Paths must be connected with crossing sensitive habitat areas

GIS Analysis Functions
This example demonstrates how a variable buffer can be performed on a selected feature
Descriptive spatial analysis can be performed on the buffered and ancillary data:
Distance
Area
Intersection
GIS Analysis Functions
Another buffering example: A logging company with restrictions as to the type and quantity of trees they can harvest.
GIS is used to determine the best location, within the required parameters.


GIS Analysis Functions
Restrictions:
No harvesting within 10 km of Shrine
No harvesting within 1 km of sea, lake or river
Logging sites must be within 5 km of existing roads for accessibility no new roads can be built

Modelling on Computer
http://educationally.narod.ru/linksgis4.html
Glossary
http://educationally.narod.ru/Gisglossaryphotoalbum.html
Output-maps
http://educationally.narod.ru/linksgis5.html
MAKING MAPS: GIS and Cartography
http://educationally.narod.ru/gismapphotoalbum.html

(GIS & Cartography lecture notes):

Definition of a map; cartographic traditions, map basics

(projections, latitude, longitude, symbolization, legends, etc.)

3 purposes/benefits and value of maps; difference between topographic and thematic maps (types of thematic maps),

Thematic maps in GIS; Concept of Scale: small- vs. large-scale maps; four types of data and appropriate labeling of features

Questions addressed by maps: User? Purpose? Where used? How used? Available data? Resources?

Basic map elements: title, scale, legend, date, bibliography, etc.

Map layout balancing of elements Cartographers palette: style, color, shadings, size,

Labeling: points, lines, areas (polygons), highlighting within maps




Making A Map in ArcView Classification types: Nominal, Ordinal, Ratio, Interval

What is Natural Breaks? What is Quantiles? What is Equal Interval? How do you symbolize data? What are your choices?



Remote sensing,

history of remote sensing, spatial resolution, Spectral Regions/bands used, Spectral Signatures

Three levels of resolution relative to an objects discernability, principle steps used to analyze all remotely sensed data, General characteristics of Landsat TM vs. SPOT vs. AVHRR, GOES, pixel, applications of remote sensing in GIS

Energy Sources (EM Spectrum, EMR)

Transfer of Energy Methods (3)

Atmosphere and EMR interactions

EMR and matter interactions

Platforms and Sensor types

Whiskbroom Scanner vs. Pushbroom Scanner

Landsat vs SPOT?

Making Maps cource description
Unit 1: Intro to GIS/what is GIS
Unit 2: Intro to ArcGIS software


ArcGIS is the propriety GIS software produced by Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). It is one of many different GIS software programs currently in use. ArcGIS includes ArcView, ArcEditor, and ARC/INFO: the introductory level for personal use is ArcView, while ARC/INFO is a very robust system generally used by government offices.

This PowerPoint introduces you to some of the basic features of ArcGIS.

Unit 3: ArcGIS Document Storage

ArcGIS has a unique way to ''save'' your maps, tables, layouts and other documents used in creating a GIS project. This PowerPoint presents some of the challenges you might encounter as you save and open your GIS projects.

ArcMap Storage
Unit 4: GIS Basics


There are two ways to ''view'' the world through GIS. One way is to map all the features of the real world as a series of points, lines, or areas (polygons). This is the Vector Data Model. The second way assumes that the real world is a series of homogenous, equally-shaped grid cells - each cell has the same feature or attribute. This is the Raster Data Model.

This PowerPoint lecture presents both the Vector Data Model and Raster Data Model as they are used in GIS. The concept of ''topology'' is also presented.
Unit 5: Coordinate Systems, Datums and Projections


One of the great challenges of working with GIS data is creating informative, interesting, and readable maps. To make maps, many different ''layers'' of data must be accessed, overlayed and registered to the same coordinate system and projection. Imagine making a map with point data (campsites, for instance), line data (roads and hiking trails), and polygon data (park boundaries, city/county boundaries). All these data must be in the same coordinate system otherwise GIS cannot ''put them together'' and you have no map!

This lecture introduces you to the basic concepts of what is a coordinate system, what is a projection and the role they play in working with data in a GIS.

Coordinate Systems, Datums and Projections
Unit 6: Data Formats and Sources


Creating a GIS database is a complex operation which involves data capture, verification, and processing. This PowerPoint lecture describes some of the various techniques employed in creating databases.

Data Formats and Sources
Unit 7: Data Management, Part 1


The development of computer-based storage and retrieval technology came out of a basic need of industries to function more effectively, with accurate and timely information.

This PowerPoint lecture takes you through the basic concepts of database models, database terminology, three database models used in industry and, more specifically, in GIS.
Unit 8: Data Management, Part 2


Data organization can be understood from four perspectives: the Data Perspective, a Relationship Perspective, an Operating System Perspective and an Application Architecture Perspective.

This PowerPoint introduces you to these four perspectives
Unit 9: Data Sources; Inputs and Outputs


There are many sources of data available today - much more than even a few years ago. Almost all data is in a format that can be used in a GIS. ESRI, with its great marketing, has garnered a large share of the market, so it''s no surprise that you can download data in ''shapefiles'' or ''*.e00'' formats that can drop right into ArcINFO, ArcEditor, or ArcView.

This very short PowerPoint presents only a few of the most likely data sources you''ll encounter and access.

Data Sources: Inputs and Outputs
Unit 10: Remote Sensing


Remote Sensing is capturing information about a feature on the surface of the Earth without physically being in contact with the feature. Cameras are, in essence, remote sensing vehicles! Of course, the remote sensing vehicles we''re going to examine in this lecture are ones that are orbiting the Earth at high altitudes.

This PowerPoint will be presented in class in two lectures: the first portion will cover the more technical points of remote sensing: electromagnetic waves, hardware, types of remote sensing vehicles available, image processing and others; the second portion will present a case study using Landsat data and GIS to examine and analyze the 2003 Paradise Fire in San Diego County, California - one of the many wildfires that have occurred in southern California over the last decade.
Unit 11: Data Quality



Until recently, GIS developers and users paid little attention to problems caused by error, inaccuracy and imprecision in spatial datasets. There was awareness that all data suffers from inaccuracy and imprecision, but effects on GIS problems and solutions were not considered.
It is now generally recognized that error, inaccuracy and imprecision can make or break GIS projects making the results of a GIS analysis worthless. This Powerpoint introduces you to some of the Data Quality challenges you may encounter in GIS.

Unit 12: Making a Map in GIS


ArcGIS has many options to map your data. The option you should not take is the ''default''. ArcGIS is not a cartography tool - it is an analyzing tool. You are the cartographer and need to know how to make a good, informative, clear map using ArcGIS.
Unit 13: GIS and Cartography


The art and science of map making - cartography - has been around for 1000s of years. Some of the first maps that are still intact were created on clay in 6200 B.C. (It was a town map -probably for tax purposes!) Today, cartographers use a new tool for their mapping - a computer and a software program designed to produce maps. For your purposes - you will be using the ArcGIS software to produce the maps for this class.

This PowerPoint introduces you to some of the ''rules'' about map-making. Following the suggestions will help you produce a clear, concise and informative map of your analyzed data.
Course Home - Exam 2 Essay Questions



Exam 2 Short Answer Essay Questions (33 points)


Please answer the following questions in a new document. Proof for spelling and grammar errors and submit through the DropBox set up on eCompanion. The essays are due on Tuesday, November 3, 2009 before the start of our class (7:00 pm).





1. How does organization of hierarchical data files differ from the organization of relational data files? (3 points)



2. What is the difference between precision and accuracy in GIS? (2 points)



3. What is a spurious or sliver polygon in GIS? How is it created in a spatial database and how can it be corrected (or eliminated)? (2 points)



4. What is metadata and why is it important to GIS? (3 points)



5. How does data differ from information? (2 points)



6. Why are information systems more data-oriented today than technology-oriented? (3 points)



7. What does normalize the data mean in GIS? What is GIS (ArcView) doing to the data? (3 points)



8. List the steps necessary to add a field to an existing attribute table in ArcView (2 points)



9. How would the incorporation of slope and aspect (from a DEM) and hydrologic information (such as drainage divides and stream networks) into a GIS assist a resource manager? (3 points)

10. What is the function of a ''neatline'' on a map? How do you place a ''neatline'' on a map in ArcGIS? (2 pts)

11. How do you add a "legend" to a map in ArcGIS? What are the editing options available in the ArcGIS "Legend" Properties? (3 pts)



12. List and describe how data can be symbolized in ArcView. Include in your discussion, the advantages and disadvantages of each type of symbology, as well as the kind of data (i.e., nominal, ordinal, interval, etc) that works best for each symbology and legend type. Indicate also if the symbology type is specific to polygon, arc, or point data. (5 points)
Course Home - Intro GIS Exam 2 Study Guide



INTRODUCTION TO GIS

EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE

Vicki Drake

Earth Science Department

Santa Monica College

Be able to identify, define and give an example for each of the following terms and concepts in GIS
Data Quality
Sources of error

(Obvious)

Age of data, area cover, map scale, density observation, relevance, formatting, accessibility, cost

(Natural variation/measurement)

Positional Accuracy, Accuracy of Content, Sources of Variation in Data

Processing errors, numerical errors, topological error analysis, classification/generalization errors, digitizing and encoding errors, digitizing, data storage errors,

Propagation and Cascading errors, undocumented data (3 important issues to consider before using)



Standards of Accuracy
USGS National Mapping Standard - How are standards set? Why?

USGS Geospatial Data Standards

Spatial Data Transfer Standards

USGS Map Accuracy Standards

Data Quality Reports

Metadata: What is this? Are there standards? Who set the standards? How is Metadata prepared? Why is it prepared? Should you create one for your projects? Federal Metadata Standard What is this? What are the broad Metadata Categories set by the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)? Three concepts of geospatial data in a GIS?



Managing Error
Testing data? Sensitivity Analysis what is this? How does it work?

What is Interval/Ratio Input testing? What is Nominal (categorical) or ordinal (ranked) testing? How are data quality assessed?

What are the characteristics of data quality (according to Aronoff?) Micro-level, macro-level and usage components What is Accuracy as it pertains to GIS database?

What is Precision as it relates to GIS database? How does Positional Accuracy related to USGS mapping standards? Can you relate accuracy standards with Map scale?

How does bias and precision relate to positional accuracy?

What is attribute accuracy How does is relate to attribute accuracy, continuous attribute accuracy, categorical attribute accuracy, errors of omission, and errors of commission? What is logical consistency? How can you test for it in a database?

What is resolution in a database? How can you test for it?

What is completeness in a database? How does it relate to Completeness of Classification, or Completeness of Verification? How does Time, Lineage, Usage costs and accessibility relate to Data Quality issues?



Data Models: Questions, Sources, Input, Output
What is a model? How can a database model reality? What is a vector data format? A Raster data format? Advantages/disadvantages of each type (raster/vector)

What questions should be asked about data and modeling?

How is a GIS database developed? Data input and output devices?

Topology: relationship to GIS? How is topology conserved/preserved using point data? Arc/line data? Area/polygon data? What is connectivity and contiguity in topological relationships?

How can GIS represent relationships in terms of: Spatial relationships? In terms of Logical Relationships? In terms of Functional relationships?





What is a Spatial Database? Can a database be used by two different

Organizations for different purposes?

Two approaches to Database Management: File Processing and Database

Management Similarities? Differences? Operations? Advantages and

Disadvantages?

Database Elements: Entity, object, attribute, attribute value, feature,

Spatial object type, spatial primitives, symbol, database models,

Layers (themes, coverages)

o-dimensional object type

1-dimensional object type

2-dimensional object type

Database Models: Hierarchical, Network, Relational Advantages and Disadvantages of each type Which one is used most often in a GIS?

(Be able to define, describe, compare and contrast each of these Database Models see Chapter 6 in Aronoffs book)

Database Structure Tables, Queries, Tuples (Record row), Records,,

Fields, Key Fields (Primary Key),

(Digital Cartographic Data Standards Task Force terminology) Data vs. Information Information systems function

Geographic Data structures: Descriptive element Graphical Element

Four components of information systems traditionally

Main component driving Information systems today

Data item (attribute), data file (flat file hierarchical file), character

Strings, numeric strings,

Four perspectives of Information Systems:

1. Data Perspective, (Descriptive or

Graphical Elements using either Raster Data method or Vector data method)

Object view Field View

2. Relationship Perspective categorical relationships or spatial

Relationships (Categorical): Classification system Nominal, Ordinal, Interval

Ratio)

Spatial: Topological, Proximal

3. Operating System Perspective (OS)

Directories subdirectories - GIS Workspace concept

4. Application Architecture Perspective

Client/Server concept and implementation

Descriptive Data Structure

Object-Oriented Data Structure

Type Constructor

Graphic Data Structures (Raster/Vector)

Raster Data Structure
How represented? What is tessellation? Why use Raster format?? What is a TIN? What is a Quadtree? What is a run-length encoding compression? How is a Raster created? What are Raster data values? How is raster data stored?



Vector Data Structure
How represented? Why use? How create? What is topology and how does it relate to Vector? What is Adjacency , Connectivity, Containment in terms of topology? How is Vector data stored? What is the Spaghetti Model of Vector Data? What is the Hierarchical Model of Vector Data? What is the Topological Model of Vector Data? Which one is more useful in a GIS? How is Vector data stored in each of these models? What is a Georelational Data Structure in Vector Data model?



What are the Advantages or Disadvantages of using either a Raster Data Model or a Vector Data Model?



(GIS & Cartography lecture notes):

Definition of a map; cartographic traditions, map basics

(projections, latitude, longitude, symbolization, legends, etc.)

3 purposes/benefits and value of maps; difference between topographic and thematic maps (types of thematic maps),

Thematic maps in GIS; Concept of Scale: small- vs. large-s

GIS Analitic Function
http://educationally.narod.ru/gisanalitphotoalbum.html
Tutorials
Exam 2 Short Answer Essay Questions (33 points)


Please answer the following questions in a new document. Proof for spelling and grammar errors and submit through the DropBox set up on eCompanion. The essays are due on Tuesday, November 3, 2009 before the start of our class (7:00 pm).





1. How does organization of hierarchical data files differ from the organization of relational data files? (3 points)



2. What is the difference between precision and accuracy in GIS? (2 points)



3. What is a spurious or sliver polygon in GIS? How is it created in a spatial database and how can it be corrected (or eliminated)? (2 points)



4. What is metadata and why is it important to GIS? (3 points)



5. How does data differ from information? (2 points)



6. Why are information systems more data-oriented today than technology-oriented? (3 points)



7. What does normalize the data mean in GIS? What is GIS (ArcView) doing to the data? (3 points)



8. List the steps necessary to add a field to an existing attribute table in ArcView (2 points)



9. How would the incorporation of slope and aspect (from a DEM) and hydrologic information (such as drainage divides and stream networks) into a GIS assist a resource manager? (3 points)

10. What is the function of a ''neatline'' on a map? How do you place a ''neatline'' on a map in ArcGIS? (2 pts)

11. How do you add a "legend" to a map in ArcGIS? What are the editing options available in the ArcGIS "Legend" Properties? (3 pts)



12. List and describe how data can be symbolized in ArcView. Include in your discussion, the advantages and disadvantages of each type of symbology, as well as the kind of data (i.e., nominal, ordinal, interval, etc) that works best for each symbology and legend type. Indicate also if the symbology type is specific to polygon, arc, or point data. (5 points)
INTRODUCTION TO GIS

EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE

Vicki Drake

Earth Science Department

Santa Monica College

Be able to identify, define and give an example for each of the following terms and concepts in GIS
Data Quality
Sources of error

(Obvious)

Age of data, area cover, map scale, density observation, relevance, formatting, accessibility, cost

(Natural variation/measurement)

Positional Accuracy, Accuracy of Content, Sources of Variation in Data

Processing errors, numerical errors, topological error analysis, classification/generalization errors, digitizing and encoding errors, digitizing, data storage errors,

Propagation and Cascading errors, undocumented data (3 important issues to consider before using)



Standards of Accuracy
USGS National Mapping Standard - How are standards set? Why?

USGS Geospatial Data Standards

Spatial Data Transfer Standards

USGS Map Accuracy Standards

Data Quality Reports

Metadata: What is this? Are there standards? Who set the standards? How is Metadata prepared? Why is it prepared? Should you create one for your projects? Federal Metadata Standard What is this? What are the broad Metadata Categories set by the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)? Three concepts of geospatial data in a GIS?



Managing Error
Testing data? Sensitivity Analysis what is this? How does it work?

What is Interval/Ratio Input testing? What is Nominal (categorical) or ordinal (ranked) testing? How are data quality assessed?

What are the characteristics of data quality (according to Aronoff?) Micro-level, macro-level and usage components What is Accuracy as it pertains to GIS database?

What is Precision as it relates to GIS database? How does Positional Accuracy related to USGS mapping standards? Can you relate accuracy standards with Map scale?

How does bias and precision relate to positional accuracy?

What is attribute accuracy How does is relate to attribute accuracy, continuous attribute accuracy, categorical attribute accuracy, errors of omission, and errors of commission? What is logical consistency? How can you test for it in a database?

What is resolution in a database? How can you test for it?

What is completeness in a database? How does it relate to Completeness of Classification, or Completeness of Verification? How does Time, Lineage, Usage costs and accessibility relate to Data Quality issues?



Data Models: Questions, Sources, Input, Output
What is a model? How can a database model reality? What is a vector data format? A Raster data format? Advantages/disadvantages of each type (raster/vector)

What questions should be asked about data and modeling?

How is a GIS database developed? Data input and output devices?

Topology: relationship to GIS? How is topology conserved/preserved using point data? Arc/line data? Area/polygon data? What is connectivity and contiguity in topological relationships?

How can GIS represent relationships in terms of: Spatial relationships? In terms of Logical Relationships? In terms of Functional relationships?





What is a Spatial Database? Can a database be used by two different

Organizations for different purposes?

Two approaches to Database Management: File Processing and Database

Management Similarities? Differences? Operations? Advantages and

Disadvantages?

Database Elements: Entity, object, attribute, attribute value, feature,

Spatial object type, spatial primitives, symbol, database models,

Layers (themes, coverages)

o-dimensional object type

1-dimensional object type

2-dimensional object type

Database Models: Hierarchical, Network, Relational Advantages and Disadvantages of each type Which one is used most often in a GIS?

(Be able to define, describe, compare and contrast each of these Database Models see Chapter 6 in Aronoffs book)

Database Structure Tables, Queries, Tuples (Record row), Records,,

Fields, Key Fields (Primary Key),

(Digital Cartographic Data Standards Task Force terminology) Data vs. Information Information systems function

Geographic Data structures: Descriptive element Graphical Element

Four components of information systems traditionally

Main component driving Information systems today

Data item (attribute), data file (flat file hierarchical file), character

Strings, numeric strings,

Four perspectives of Information Systems:

1. Data Perspective, (Descriptive or

Graphical Elements using either Raster Data method or Vector data method)

Object view Field View

2. Relationship Perspective categorical relationships or spatial

Relationships (Categorical): Classification system Nominal, Ordinal, Interval

Ratio)

Spatial: Topological, Proximal

3. Operating System Perspective (OS)

Directories subdirectories - GIS Workspace concept

4. Application Architecture Perspective

Client/Server concept and implementation

Descriptive Data Structure

Object-Oriented Data Structure

Type Constructor

Graphic Data Structures (Raster/Vector)

Raster Data Structure
How represented? What is tessellation? Why use Raster format?? What is a TIN? What is a Quadtree? What is a run-length encoding compression? How is a Raster created? What are Raster data values? How is raster data stored?



Vector Data Structure
How represented? Why use? How create? What is topology and how does it relate to Vector? What is Adjacency , Connectivity, Containment in terms of topology? How is Vector data stored? What is the Spaghetti Model of Vector Data? What is the Hierarchical Model of Vector Data? What is the Topological Model of Vector Data? Which one is more useful in a GIS? How is Vector data stored in each of these models? What is a Georelational Data Structure in Vector Data model?



What are the Advantages or Disadvantages of using either a Raster Data Model or a Vector Data Model?



(GIS & Cartography lecture notes):

Definition of a map; cartographic traditions, map basics

(projections, latitude, longitude, symbolization, legends, etc.)

3 purposes/benefits and value of maps; difference between topographic and thematic maps (types of thematic maps),

Thematic maps in GIS; Concept of Scale: small- vs. large-scale maps; four types of data and appropriate labeling of features

Questions addressed by maps: User? Purpose? Where used? How used? Available data? Resources?

Basic map elements: title, scale, legend, date, bibliography, etc.

Map layout balancing of elements Cartographers palette: style, color, shadings, size,

Labeling: points, lines, areas (polygons), highlighting within maps




Making A Map in ArcView Classification types: Nominal, Ordinal, Ratio, Interval

What is Natural Breaks? What is Quantiles? What is Equal Interval? How do you symbolize data? What are your choices?



Remote sensing,

history of remote sensing, spatial resolution, Spectral Regions/bands used, Spectral Signatures

Three levels of resolution relative to an objects discernability, principle steps used to analyze all remotely sensed data, General characteristics of Landsat TM vs. SPOT vs. AVHRR, GOES, pixel, applications of remote sensing in GIS

Energy Sources (EM Spectrum, EMR)

Transfer of Energy Methods (3)

Atmosphere and EMR interactions

EMR and matter interactions

Platforms and Sensor types

Whiskbroom Scanner vs. Pushbroom Scanner

Landsat vs SPOT?

Data Structure
http://educationally.narod.ru/gisdatastrphotoalbum.html
Etical aspects of GIS
http://educationally.narod.ru/giseticaphotoalbum.html
About data map types
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa723440.aspx
GIS in Russia
http://educationally.narod.ru/linksgisru.html
Implementing GIS
http://educationally.narod.ru/gisplanphotoalbum.html

Designing and Implementing a GIS
Introduction

Many of you may become involved in designing and implementing a GIS system for your organization, or for your general research needs. The following notes summarize Roger Tomlinsons basic design for implementing a GIS. (Tomlinson, Roger. 2007. Thinking About GIS. Third Edition. ESRI Press: Redlands, CA - source of most notes, and suggested reading).

Ten Stages to GIS Planning (Tomlinson 2007)
Tomlinson (2007) has broken down the task of implementing a GIS into ten stages. These steps may require a lot or little detail depending upon the scope and size of your project.

1: Consider the Strategic Purpose
What is the general purpose of your organization, what are the goals, objectives, and mandates? How does GIS fit into these? If your organization is involved in natural or human resource management, then a GIS may form an integral part of your organization. On the other hand, maybe spatial data is a small part of your organization. A GIS must fit into your needs, and not be implemented just because you can. Look at the following for your organization: mission statement, guiding principles, goal statement, program direction, employee development and support, and public interaction.

2: Plan for the Planning
Develop a project proposal for a formal planning process for implementing GIS. This is the stage where executive level commitments are made for the process to begin. This stage can be very informal if you are part of a very small organization or just one person. Who is on the team, what is the timeline?

3: Conduct a Technology Seminar
Define what is needed from a GIS, and what GIS can do for your organization.


4: Describe the Information Products
What do you need to make your job(s) easier, more efficient? Maps, lists, reports. Who needs the information, what are the requirements?

5: Define the System Scope
What data to acquire, when, how much, source for the data?

6: Create a Data Design
What is the best way to represent the data that you need?, scale, resolution, map projection, error tolerance, do you need multiple versions at different scales? Data standards and conversion? What software will you use, and how does it interface with your present system(s).

7: Choose a Logical Data Model
How will the data be structured for your organization? Relational database (think related tables based on key), object-oriented, object-relational. Will you use a geodatabase model?

8: Determine System Requirements
What software is needed (desktop GIS, web based server)? What size computer system, and network needs are required? How much will it cost?

9: Consider Benefit-cost, Migration, and Risk Analysis
How much will the system cost, versus what are the benefits. Include hardware and software, data, staffing and training, application programming, and interfaces and communication (network). This will also help you to revise your plan based on budget (e.g. image resolution vs. cost).

10: Plan the Implementation
This plan identifies the actions required for implementing GIS, such as product identification, equipment and software purchased, training,

Exam
http://educationally.narod.ru/linksgis8.html
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