Minerals
Environmental science is an expression encompassing the wide range of scientific disciplines that need to be brought together to understand and manage the natural environment and the many interactions among physical, chemical, and biological components. Environmental Science provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems.[1] Individuals may operate as Environmental scientists or a group of scientists may work together pooling their individual skills. The most common model for the delivery of Environmental science is through the work of an individual scientist or small team drawing on the peer-reviewed, published work of many other scientists throughout the world.
Mineralogy Databaze

Minerals List

Links

Rocks

Basic Petrology Cource

General Interest

MINERALS (catalog) Russian

Properties of Minerals

Geo-Wiki

Ranguea

Plate tectonics

IGNEOUS ROCK TEXTURES

phaneritic-texture, Britannica Online Encyclopedia

INTRUSIVE IGNEOUS ROCKS
http://home.iitk.ac.in/~ramesh/intr_ig_ce242.ppt - see as PowerPoint
INTRUSIVE IGNEOUS ROCKS

Field Techniques in Glaciology and Glacial Geomorphology By Bryn Hubbard, Neil F. Glasser

Definitions of Some of the More Common Petrographic Terms

Igneous Rocks

Rocks - The Encyclopedia Americana

Bowen''s reaction series

Bowen''s reaction series edu

Bowen''s reaction series

Bowen''s reaction series and minerals

Magma Types/Bowen''s reaction series

Bowen''s reaction series

Bowen''s reaction series - Britannica Online Encyclopedia

Bowen''s reaction series - World of Earth Science

Igneous Rocks: textures and compositions

TEST

Introduction
Types of the Plate motion. Plate boundaries includes: i- Divergent plate ... iii- Transform or shear plate boundaries, Cont. Why we study metamorphic rocks



picture of movement Russian area from 800ma
The composition of the Earth:

Lithosphere (5-70 km, solid and rocky, 5 km thick under the oceans and up to 70 km thick under the continents). It composes of:
sedimentary cover (10 km)
Sial (granitic in composition)
Sima (basaltic in composition)
Mantle Asthenosphere (250 km thick, molten rocks, 780 ўXC)
Mantle Mesosphere (2550 km thick, Si, O, Fe, Mg)
Outer core (2200 km thick, Thick liquid, Fe, Ni)
Inner Core (1228 km thick, Solid, Fe and Ni)


Rock cycle



















Rocks


Rocks are defined as a component of the EarthЎ¶s crust, composed of one or more minerals with geologic extension

Rocks are classified into:

- Primary - Igneous rocks

- Secondary - Sedimentary rocks

- Metamorphic rocks

The metamorphic rocks are secondary rocks formed from pre-existing igneous, sedimentary, and/or prior metamorphic rocks, which are subjected to physicochemical conditions (P, T, and chemical active fluids) higher than that at the earthЎ¶s surface. The yielded metamorphic rocks differ than the original ones in mineralogy, structure (textures), and/or chemical composition. Note: Metamorphism should be occur in solid state.
Due to higher P-T conditions, metamorphic rocks undergo partial melting and a hybrid rock between igneous and metamorphic, know as migmatites, could form.






Continental drift







Plate boundaries







Plate boundaries







Plate Motions







Types of the Plate motion


Plate boundaries includes:

i- Divergent plate boundaries (ĄґĄĶ):

Formation of the Red Sea and Atlantic Ocean
Ii- Convergent plate boundaries (ĄĶĄґ)

Oceanic-continental convergence (Oceanic Nazka ЎV S American plate)
Oceanic-oceanic convergence (Pacific plate ЎV Philippine plate)
Continental-continental convergence (Indian plate- Eurasian plate)
iii- Transform or shear plate boundaries:

The San Andreas fault zone, and Gulf of Aqaba fault






i- Divergent plate boundaries







i- Divergent plate boundaries, Cont.







i- Divergent plate boundaries, Cont.







ii- Convergent plate boundaries







ii- Convergent plate boundaries, Cont.
a) oceanic-oceanic subduction







ii- Convergent plate boundaries, Cont.
b) Oceanic-continental subduction







ii- Convergent plate boundaries, Cont.
c) Continental - continental collision







iii- Transform or shear plate boundaries







iii- Transform or shear plate boundaries, Cont.







Why we study metamorphic rocks?


Goals of study metamorphic petrology includes:

Academic goals: to deduce the following
Protolith (original rock) composition
Grade and conditions of metamorphism
Tectonic setting under which the metamorphism have done
- Applied goals: Metamorphic rocks like other rock types hosted mineral resources e.g:

Graphite, Talc, Magnesite, Asbestos, Corundum, vermiculites, garnets, etc.
- They used also as ornamental stones as Slates, Marbles, gneisses, metaconglomerates, greenstones and others

Typpes of Metamorphysm
Types of metamorphism


ѓПOn the basis of (i) Geological setting, and (ii) agents of metamorphism, the type of metamorphism includes:

- Regional extent (over a wide area)

- Orogenic metamorphism (T, P, active fluids)

- Ocean floor metamorphism (T)

- Subduction zone metamorphism (HP/LT)

- Burial metamohism (LT/LP)

- Local extent (local area)

- Contact or thermal metamorphism (T)

- Cataclastic or shear zone metamorphism (P)

- Hydrothermal metamorphism (active fluids)

- Impact or shock metamorphism (extreme P-T)



A1: Orogenic metamorphism
(Regional or dynamothermal metamorphism)


Features of orogenic metamorphism :
- Where?: Restricted to orogenic belts and extent over distance of hundreds to southlands Kms, e.g. East-African orogen

The agents of metamorphism: include T, P & active chemical solution
Time duration is long (million or tens of millions years)
The yielded rocks suffered deformation and recrystallization, and exhibit penetrative fabric with preferred orientation of mineral grains. They could suffered phases of crystallization and deformation
At higher P-T conditions, partial to complete melting may accompanied and both migmatites and granites may associates, or granulite could be develop.




migmatites







A2: Ocean-floor metamorphism


Features of ocean-floor metamorhism :
where?: Restricted to transformation of the oceanic crust at the vicinity of mid-ocean ridge
Occur in the upper part of the oceanic crust, typically in sheeted dykes
The agents of metamorphism include T & sea water percolation
- The yielded rocks are mostly basic (sheated dykes) in composition, with no penetrative fabric (non-foliated texture)








A3: Subduction zone metamorphism


Features of subduction zone metamorphism :
where?: At convergence plate margins, where subduction of cold oceanic lithosphere and overlying sediments against an adjacent continental or oceanic plate.
The agents of metamorphism include higher pressure, low temperature conditions
The yielded rocks contain high pressure mineral assemblage such glucophane, and kyanite should formed
To preserve such environment , the rock requires rapid uplift






A4: Burial metamorphism


Features of burial metamorhism :
Where?: in subsidence basins, where sediments and interlayered volcanics suffered low temperature regional metamorphism
Agent of metamorphism include low temperature-low pressure conditions due to burial affect without any influence of orogenesis or magmatic intrusions.
The yielded rocks lack schistosity and the original fabrics are largely preserved. So, the yielded rocks are distinguished only in thin section
- In Extensional regime, Diatathermal metamorphism is used







B1: Contact or thermal metamorphism


Features of Contact or thermal metamorphism :
Where ?: At vicinity of contacts with intrusive or extrusive igneous rock bodies
Agent of metamorphism is the higher temperature resulted from heat emanating from the magma, and sometimes by deformation connecting with the emplacement of the igneous bodies.
The zone of the contact metamorphism is known as contact aureole, various from meter to few kms.
The width of the zone depend up on:
1- volume of the magmatic bodies

2- nature of the magmatic bodies (basaltic or granitic composition)

3- The intrusion depth of magmatic bodies.







B1: Contact or thermal metamorphism, cont.


4- Type of country rocks (Shale, limestones or igneous rocks)

5- structures of the country rocks (cracks and fissures)

- Duration of metamorphism is short time (up to hundred years)

- The yielded rocks are generally fine grained and lack schistosity (hornfels)

In case of higher temperature influence, Pyrometamorphism, is used.
Migmatites could produced in such conditions.






B2- Cataclastic or shear zone metamorphism


Features of cataclastic or shear zone metamorphism :
where?: Restricted to the vicinity of faults of overthrusts in the upper crust level (brittle deformation)
Agents of metamorphism is pressure in form of mechanical forces.
The yielded rocks suffered crushing, granulation and pulverization (reducing in grain size).
The yielded rocks are non-foliated and braccia-like, cataclasite, mylonite, ultramylonite to pseudotachylite.






B2- Cataclastic or shear zone metamorphism







B3- Hydrothermal metamorphism


Features of hydrothermal metamorphism :
where?: Localized at interaction of hot, largely aqueous fluids (from igneous source) with country rocks.
Similar to regional ocean-floor metamorphism
the aqueous hydrothermal fluids usually transported via fractures and shear zones at some distance either near or far from their source
- The yielded rocks are mineralogically and chemically changed than the protolith and ore deposits are occasionally originated


If the gases instead the aqueous fluids, Pneumatolytic metamorphism, is used






B4- Impact or shock metamorphism


Features of impact metamorphism :
Where?: Impact of fall meteorites with different size on the EarthЎ¦s crust.
This impact yielded shock waves with extreme higher P-T conditions, up to 1000 kbar and 5000 ўXC
Duration time is very short, microsecond.
- The impacted rocks were vaporized, but in less condition, they melted to produce vesicular glass containing coesite and stishovite, as well as minute diamond







Metamorphism and plate tectonic


1- Divergent plate margin:

Ocean floor metamorphism (HT/LP & seawater fluids)
- Diatathermal metamorphism (HT/LP)
- Contact metamorphism (HT/LP)
- Hydrothermal metamorphism (Hydrothermal fluids)






Metamorphism and plate tectonic


2- Convergent plate metamorphism

Orogenic condition (various P-T)
- Cataclastic and Subduction zone metamorphism (LT/HP)


3- Transform plate boundaries

Cataclastic or Subduction zone metamorphism (LT/HP)

Earth Science and Free Education (different subjects)

Understanding earth By Frank Press, Raymond Siever, John Grotzinger, Thomas H. Jordan

PLATE TECTONICS
OCEAN RIDGE MAGMATISM
METAMORPHISM OF OCEANIC CRUST
- (1) Brownstone Facies (Ocean floor)
- (2) Zeolite facies ( Temperature above 50-100įC.)
- 3) Greenschist Facies
-(4) Amphibolite Facies

Summary of Mineral Assemblages in Altered Crust

Ocean floor metamorphism - Sarmiento Ophiolite, Chile

Chemical fluxes in oceanic crust - the ''MEGALEG''
Chemical Changes in Oceanic Crust - Troodos Ophiolite
VARIATION IN Sr ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION of SEAWATER WITH TIME: the plate tectonics connexion

Cann (1979) recognises 5 different mineral assemblage facies in oceanic basalts recovered by dredging, drilling etc

Plate Dynamics

Earth Glossary

Metamorphic Grade - Metamorphic Rocks And Facies

Earth''s Dynamic Systems
Metamorphism and Tectonics

Definitions:
Steady state geotherm: Is that curve defining the change in T as a function of depth in an area that is not experiencing any tectonic activity such as a stable shield or continental interior.

Transient geotherm: Is the geotherm in a tectonically active area, and will only prevail for a limited time period that depends on the duration and type of this tectonic event.

Geothermal gradient: Is the slope of the geotherm at a particular time in the history of the study area.

Metamorphic field gradient: Is a trajectory connecting the P-T conditions at the maximum T calculated for each metamorphic zone. According to England and Richardson (1977), the metamorphic field gradient has little physical meaning because peak temperatures in each metamorphic zone were reached at different times during the metamorphic history of the area.

An overview of metamorphism in relation to tectonic regimes:
The metamorphic facies series encountered in different tectonic regimes or settings can be summarized as follows, and are shown schematically on Figs. 1 and 2:
(a) Ridges and rift valleys: characterized by high geothermal gradients * contact and ocean floor metamorphism.
(b) Areas of magmatic activity; volcanic - plutonic complexes: greenschists * amphibolites * granulites.
(c) Areas of crustal thickening and mountain building: greenschists * amphibolites * granulites and type B eclogites (particularly if there are magmatic intrusions).
(d) Subduction zones: Characterized by low geothermal gradients: zeolite * pumpellyite-actinolite facies /lawsonite albite facies * blueschist facies * type C eclogites.

A- Convergent Plate Boundaries:
I- Subduction Zone metamorphism:
Rocks of the subducted plate are usually metamorphosed following "clockwise" P-T paths in which peak pressures are attained before peak temperatures. According to tectonic setting, subduction is of two "types":
(a) B-type subduction: where the oceanic crust is subducted beneath a continental or another oceanic plate. This type usually results in the formation of the "paired metamorphic belts" of Miyashiro, with blueschists and eclogites in the subducted plate close to the subduction thrust, and high T, low P amphibolite- and sandinite- facies rocks on the overriding plate, commonly forming an island arc in the case of ocean - ocean interaction (Figs. 3 and 4). Examples of this type include the Franciscan (with the Sierra Nevada) in the western U.S.A., and the Sanbagawa (and Abukuma) belts in Japan.
(b) A-type subduction: where the continental crust "attempts" to become subducted usually beneath another continental plate. Because of the low density of continental material, it is generally more difficult to subduct compared to the oceanic crust, and will have a tendency to "rebound" isostatically. Examples include the western Alps (Dora Maira), the Tauern Window (Austrian Alps; Fig. 5), and Saih Hatat (Oman).

While discussing subduction zone metamorphism, it is appropriate to discuss some of the problems associated with its rocks. The most important of these is the preservation of blueschist facies mineral assemblages, and the uplift of blueschists.

Preservation of Blueschists:
ē Most blueschists (and type C eclogites) are characterized by clockwise P-T paths, and may therefore undergo heating and decompression during their exhumation.
ē If the geothermal gradient prevailing during exhumation is sufficiently high, these rocks will pass through the greenschist, epidote amphibolite or amphibolite facies upon exhumation.
ē If exhumation rate is not rapid enough, these rocks will be overprinted by these later assemblages to such an extent that they may not survive their trip to the surface.
ē Draper and Bone (1974) suggested that the preservation of blueschists requires exhumation rates that cannot be accounted for by average erosional rates.
ē Hairpin shaped paths and their significance  underthrusting and refrigeration.

Models of blueschist and eclogite exhumation:
a) Platt''s model: Platt (1987) suggested that blueschists and type C eclogites formed by B-type subduction may be underplated (attached or accreted) to the overriding plate or mantle wedge. Such process leads the accretionary wedge to become thicker and tectonically unstable. This in turn leads to the development of normal faults along which the high P/T rocks can make their way back to the surface fairly rapidly without being significantly overprinted. This model is shown in Fig. 6. Note that a similar model can be tailored to type A subduction zones.
b) Cloos''s model: Cloos (1982) suggested that during B-type subduction, accretionary wedge pelitic material moving down the subduction zone will tend to flow back upwards by the forces of buoyancy, when it can then carry bits and pieces of the subducted slab (now metamorphosed under blueschist and eclogite facies conditions; Fig. 7). This model works only for tectonic mélanges, such as in the Franciscan.
c) Other models: Water melon seed model; delamination; Ö. etc.

Blueschists in time:
Most blueschists are Mesozoic in age, with some Paleozoic examples, and only a handful of Precambrian ones. Could this be due to Plate tectonics not operating during the Precambrian the way we think it does today? Or is it a function of differences in geotherms prevailing at those times? Post-Eocene blueschists are also very rare or non-existent. Can you think of a reason?

II- Thrusting and continent - continent collision:
Not all areas of continent Ė continent collision are characterized by high P/T metamorphism; many were found to belong to Miyashiroís high P, intermediate facies series; whereas others are associated with so much magmatic activity that they may be considered to belong to the ďregional Ė contactĒ type of metamorphism of Spear (1993). Examples of these two cases include:
1- The Himalayas (which have an inverted metamorphic gradient in which the Sill zone overlies the Ky zone, which in turn overlies the Gt and Bt zones (Fig. 8). Several models have been proposed to explain this inverted sequence and the P-T paths obtained. These are shown schematically in Figs. 9 and 10.
2- New England: The northern Appalachians are characterized by a complex Polymetamorphic history. The main event seems to have been Acadian, in which a continental fragment collided with N. America resulting in partial melting and the development of numerous igneous intrusions. Nappes containing sheet Ė like igneous intrusions were emplaced onto colder sheets. The overthrust nappes therefore had counterclockwise P-T paths, whereas the lower nappes were characterized by periods of isobaric heating followed by near isothermal loading (Fig. 11).

III- Metamorphism associated with ophiolite emplacement:
1- Subophiolitic metamorphic aureoles or soles and inverted metamorphic gradients.
2- Burial type metamorphism with a high P/T field gradient
3- Subduction zone metamorphism

B- Stable continental interiors and deep sedimentary basins:
These are characterized by burial metamorphism with clockwise P-T paths, and peak T in the greenschist to epidote amphibolite facies.

C- Divergent Plate Boundaries:
1- Ocean Floor Metamorphism:
2- Continental rifts: In such settings, it is very common to find ďmetamorphic core complexesĒ, defined as areas that are topographically high and that consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that display anomalous deformation and metamorphism relative to the surrounding rocks. These complexes are structurally overlain by normally faulted sedimentary rocks. The boundary between the complexes and the sedimentary rocks is a low angle normal fault known as a ďdecollementĒ. Rocks of the metamorphic core complex are characterized by clockwise P-T paths of evolution, with segments of isothermal decompression, marking their rapid exhumation along these decollements. Examples include several areas in the Basin and Range province, and the Cordillera Darwin in Chile (Fig. 12).

Conservative Plate Boundaries:
1- Cataclasis and Mylonitization
2- Serpentinite diapirs and associated metasomatism.

Plate Boundaries

Transform Plate Boundaries
Transform plate boundaries are unique, in that the plates move horizontally past each other on strike-slip faults. Lithosphere is neither created nor destroyed.

The three major types of transform boundaries are: (1) a ridge-ridge transform, which connects two segments of a divergent plate boundary; (2) a ridge-trench transform, which connects a ridge and a trench; and (3) a trench-trench transform, which connects two convergent plate boundaries.

Transform plate boundaries are shearing zones where plates move past each other without diverging or converging. In the shearing process, secondary features are created, including parallel ridges and valleys, pull-apart basins, and belts of folds. Compression and extension develop only in small areas.

Oceanic fracture zones are prominent linear features that trend perpendicular to the oceanic ridge. They may be several kilometers wide and thousands of kilometers long. The structure and topography of oceanic fracture zones depend largely on two things: the temperature (or age) difference across the fracture, and the spreading rate of the oceanic ridge.

Continental transform fault zones are similar to oceanic transforms, but they lack fracture zone extensions.

Shallow earthquakes are common along transform plate boundaries; they are especially destructive on the continents.

Volcanism is rare along transform plate boundaries, but small amounts of basalt erupt locally from leaky transform faults.

Metamorphism in transform fault zones creates rocks with strongly sheared fabrics, as well as hydrated crustal and even mantle rocks.

Environmental Geology
Environmental Geology reflects the view held by a growing number of geologists that an integrated Earth system science approach provides essential insights into the workings of the whole Earth and is crucial to the development of scientific literacy. Unique, contemporary, and visually stunning, this new textbook guides the reader toward a personal understanding of Earth''s varied environments, the whole Earth system that connects them, and the local and global ramifications of natural events and human intervention.


More details
Environmental geology: an earth system science approach
By Dorothy Merritts, Andrew DeWet, Andrew De Wet, Kirsten Menking
Contributor Andrew De Wet, Kirsten Menking

Introduction to metamorphic textures and microstructures By A. J. Barker

Processes of Metamorphism

California Geological Societies

Asbestos

Oceanography
Course Content:
AN OCEAN WORLD
1. One World Ocean
2. The world Ocean: two views
3. The Nature of Science
4. What is Marine Science?
5. The Origin of Earth
6. Earth and Ocean
7. The Origin of Life

A HISTORY OF MARINE SCIENCE
1. Voyaging Begins
2. Science for Voyaging
3. Voyages for Science
4. Scientific Expeditions
5. Twentieth-Century Voyaging for Science
6. The Rise of Oceanographic Institutions
7. Current and future Oceanographic Research

EARTH STRUCTURE AND PLATE TECTONICS
1. A Layered Earth
2. Towards an Understanding of Earth
3. Plate Tectonics: A Closer Look
4. The Confirmation of Plate Tectonics
5. Problems and Implications

CONTINENTAL MARGINS AND OCEAN BASINS
1. The Topography of Ocean Floor
2. Continental Margins
3. Deep-Ocean Basins

SEDIMENTS
1. What Sediments Look Like
2. Classifying Sediments by Particle Size
3. Classifying Sediments by Source (Origin)
4. The Distribution of Marine Sediments
5. The Sediments of Continental Margins
6. The Sediments of Deep-Ocean Basins
7. Sediments: A World Ocean View
8. The Economic Importance of Marine Sediments

SEAWATER CHEMISTRY
1. The Water Molecule
2. The Dissolving Power of Water
3. Seawater
4. Dissolved Gases

OCEAN PHYSICS
1. Water and Heat
2. Global Thermostatic Effects
3. Temperature, Salinity, and Water Density
4. An Overview of the Ocean Surface Conditions
5. Refraction, Light and Sound

ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION AND WEATHER
1. Composition and Properties of the Atmosphere
2. Weather and Climate
3. Wind Patterns

OCEAN CIRCULATION
1. The Forces That Drive Currents
2. Surface Currents
3. Wind-Induced Vertical Circualtion
4. Thermohaline Circulation

LIFE IN THE OCEAN
1. The Organization of Communities
2. Classification of the Marine Environment
3. The Flow of Energy and Materials
4. Marine Productivity
5. Fisheries Resources

http://ou.tsu.ru/hischool/zemlevedenie/tema1.htm

http://teory.narod.ru/history.htm

http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%95%D1%80%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B5%D0%B2,_%D0%9C%D0%B8%D1%85%D0%B0%D0%B8%D0%BB_%D0%9C%D0%B8%D1%85%D0%B0%D0%B9%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87

http://www.polarpost.ru/f/viewtopic.php?id=646

Ермолаев, Михаил Михайлович

Mount St. Helens

Landscape forms (geo)

environment

Oceanology: PELAGIC COMMUNITIES

EARTH: AN INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL GEOLOGY, by Edward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens, Dennis Tasa

Geosystems

Rocks

PALEONTOLOGY PAGES
In the consideration of the characteristic fossils of each successive period, a general account is given of their more important zoological characters and their relations to living forms; but the technical language of Zoology has been avoided, and the aid of illustrations has been freely called into use. It may therefore be hoped that the work may be found to be available for the purposes of both the Geological and the Zoological student; since it is essentially an outline of Historical Palśontology, and the student of either of the above-mentioned sciences must perforce possess some knowledge of the last. Whilst primarily intended for students, it may be added that the method of treatment adopted has been so far untechnical as not to render the work useless to the general reader who may desire Page vii to acquire some knowledge of a subject of such vast and universal interest.

PRINCIPLES OF PAL∆ONTOLOGY
The general objects or geological scienceóThe older theories of catastrophistic and intermittent actionóThe more modern doctrines of continuous and uniform actionóBearing of these doctrines respectively on the origin or the existing terrestrial orderóElements or truth in CatastrophismóGeneral truth of the doctrine of ContinuityóGeological time.

CHAPTER I.

Definition of PalśontologyóNature of FossilsóDifferent processes of fossilisation.

CHAPTER II.

Aqueous and igneous rocksóGeneral characters of the sedimentary rocksóMode or formation of the sedimentary rocksóDefinition of the term "formation"óChief divisions of the aqueous rocksóMechanically-formed rocks, their characters and mode of originóChemically and organically formed rocksóCalcareous rocksóChalk, its microscopic structure and mode of formationóLimestone, varieties, structure, and originóPhosphate of limeóConcretionsóSulphate of limeóSilica and siliceous deposits of various kindsóGreensandsóRed claysóCarbon and carbonaceous deposits.

CHAPTER III.

Chronological succession of the fossiliferous rocksóTests or age of strataóValue of Palśontological evidence in stratigraphical GeologyóGeneral sequence of the great formations.

Page x CHAPTER IV.

The breaks in the palśontological and geological recordóUse of the term "contemporaneous" as applied to groups of strataóGeneral sequence of strata and of life-forms interfered with by more or less extensive gapsóUnconformabilityóPhenomena implied by thisóCauses of the imperfection of the palśontological record.

CHAPTER V.

Conclusions to be drawn from fossilsóAge of rocksóMode of origin of any fossiliferous bedóFluviatile, lacustrine, and marine depositsóConclusions as to climateóProofs of elevation and subsidence of portions of the earth''s crust derived from fossils.

CHAPTER VI.

The biological relations of fossilsóExtinction of life-formsóGeological range of different speciesóPersistent types of lifeóModern origin of existing animals and plantsóReference of fossil forms to the existing primary divisions of the animal kingdomóDeparture of the older types of life from those now in existenceóResemblance of the fossils of a given formation to those of the formation next above and next belowóIntroduction of new life-forms.


HISTORICAL PAL∆ONTOLOGY.



The Laurentian and Huronian periodsóGeneral nature, divisions, and geographical distribution of the Laurentian depositsóLower and Upper LaurentianóReasons for believing that the Laurentian rocks are not azoic based upon their containing limestones, beds of oxide of iron, and graphiteóThe characters, chemical composition, and minute structure of EozoŲn CanadenseóComparison of EozoŲn with existing ForaminiferaóArchúosphúrinúóHuronian formationóNature and distribution of Huronian depositsóOrganic remains of the HuronianóLiterature.

CHAPTER VIII.

The Cambrian periodóGeneral succession of Cambrian deposits in WalesóLower Cambrian and Upper CambrianóCambrian deposits of the continent of Europe and North AmericanóLife of the Cambrian period ó Fucoids ó Eophyton ó Oldhamia ó Sponges ó Echinoderms ó Annelides ó Crustaceans ó Structure of TrilobitesóBrachiopodsóPteropods, Gasteropods, and BivalvesóCephalopodsóLiterature.

Page xi CHAPTER IX.

The Lower Silurian periodóThe Silurian rocks generallyóLimits of Lower and Upper SilurianóGeneral succession, subdivisions, and characters of the Lower Silurian rocks of WalesóGeneral succession, subdivisions, and characters of the Lower Silurian rocks of the North American continentóLife of the period ó Fucoids ó Protozoa ó Graptolites ó Structure of Graptolites ó Corals ó General structure of Corals ó Crinoids ó Cystideans ó General characters of Cystideans ó Annelides ó Crustaceans ó Polyzoa ó Brachiopods ó Bivalve and Univalve MolluscsóChambered CephalopodsóGeneral characters of the CephalopodaóConodonts.

CHAPTER X.

The Upper Silurian periodóGeneral succession of the Upper Silurian deposits of WalesóUpper Silurian deposits of North AmericaóLife of the Upper Silurian ó Plants ó Protozoa ó Graptolites ó Corals ó Crinoids ó General structure of Crinoids ó Star-fishes ó Annelides ó Crustaceans ó Eurypterids ó Polyzoa ó Brachiopods ó Structure of Brachiopods ó Bivalves and Univalves ó Pteropods ó Cephalopods ó Fishes ó Silurian literature.

CHAPTER XI.

The Devonian periodóRelations between the Old Red Sandstone and the marine Devonian depositsóThe Old Red Sandstone of ScotlandóThe Devonian strata of DevonshireóSequence and subdivisions of the Devonian deposits of North AmericaóLife of the period ó Plants ó Protozoa ó Corals ó Crinoids ó Pentremites ó Annelides ó Crustaceans ó Insects ó Polyzoa ó Brachiopods ó Bivalves ó Univalves ó Pteropods ó Cephalopods ó Fishes ó General divisions of the FishesóPalśontological evidence as to the independent existence of the Devonian system as a distinct formationóLiterature.

CHAPTER XII.

The Carboniferous periodóRelations of Carboniferous rocks to DevonianóThe Carboniferous Limestone or Sub-Carboniferous seriesóThe Millstone-grit and the Coal-measuresóLife of the periodóStructure and mode of formation of CoalóPlants of the Coal.

CHAPTER XIII.

Animal life of the Carboniferous period ó Protozoa ó Corals ó Crinoids ó Pentremites ó Structure of Pentremites ó Echinoids ó Structure of Echinoidea ó Annelides ó Crustacea ó Insects ó Arachnids ó Myriapods ó Polyzoa ó Brachiopods ó Bivalves and Univalves ó Cephalopods ó Fishes ó Labyrinthodont AmphibiansóLiterature.

Page xii CHAPTER XIV.

The Permian period ó General succession, characters, and mode of formation of the Permian deposits ó Life of the period ó Plants ó Protozoa ó Corals ó Echinoderms ó Annelides ó Crustaceans ó Polyzoa ó Brachiopods ó Bivalves ó Univalves ó Pteropods ó Cephalopods ó Fishes ó Amphibians ó Reptiles ó Literature.

CHAPTER XV.

The Triassic period-óGeneral characters and subdivisions of the Trias of the Continent of Europe and BritainóTrias of North AmericaóLife of the period ó Plants ó Echinoderms ó Crustaceans ó Polyzoa ó Brachiopods ó Bivalves ó Univalves ó Cephalopods ó Intermixture of Palśozoic with Mesozoic types of Molluscs ó Fishes ó Amphibians ó Reptiles ó Supposed footprints of Birds ó Mammals ó Literature.

CHAPTER XVI.

The Jurassic periodóGeneral sequence and subdivisions of the Jurassic deposits in BritainóJurassic rocks of North AmericaóLife of the period ó Plants ó Corals ó Echinoderms ó Crustaceans ó Insects ó Brachiopods ó Bivalves ó Univalves ó Pteropods ó Tetrabranchiate Cephalopods ó Dibranchiate Cephalopods ó Fishes ó Reptiles ó Birds ó Mammals ó Literature.

CHAPTER XVII.

The Cretaceous periodóGeneral succession and subdivisions of the Cretaceous rocks in BritainóCretaceous rocks of North AmericaóLife of the period ó Plants ó Protozoa ó Corals ó Echinoderms ó Crustaceans ó Polyzoa ó Brachiopods ó Bivalves ó Univalves ó Tetrabranchiate and Dibranchiate Cephalopods ó Fishes ó Reptiles ó Birds ó Literature.

CHAPTER XVIII.

The Eocene periodóRelations between the Kainozoic and Mesozoic rocks in Europe and in North AmericaóClassification of the Tertiary depositsóThe sequence and subdivisions of the Eocene rocks of Britain and FranceóEocene strata of the United StatesóLife of the period ó Plants ó Foraminifera ó Corals ó Echinoderms ó Mollusca ó Fishes ó Reptiles ó Birds ó Mammals.

Page xiii CHAPTER XIX.

The Miocene periodóMiocene strata of BritainóOf FranceóOf BelgiumóOf AustriaóOf SwitzerlandóOf GermanyóOf GreeceóOf IndiaóOf North AmericaóOf the Arctic regionsóLife of the periodóVegetation of the Miocene period ó Foraminifera ó Corals ó Echinoderms ó Articulates ó Mollusca ó Fishes ó Amphibians ó Reptiles ó Mammals.

CHAPTER XX.

The Pliocene periodóPliocene deposits of BritainóOf EuropeóOf North AmericaóLife of the periodóClimate of the period as indicated by the Invertebrate animalsóThe Pliocene MammaliaóLiterature relating to the Tertiary deposits and their fossils.

CHAPTER XXI.

The Post-Pliocene periodóDivision of the Quaternary deposits into Post-Pliocene and RecentóRelations of the Post-Pliocene deposits of the northern hemisphere to the "Glacial period"óPre-Glacial depositsóGlacial depositsóArctic Mollusca in Glacial bedsóPost-Glacial depositsóNature and mode of formation of high-level and low-level gravelsóNature and mode of formation of cavern-depositsóKent''s Cavern-PostóPliocene deposits of the southern hemisphere.

CHAPTER XXII.

Life of the Post-Pliocene periodóEffect of the coming on and departure of the Glacial period upon the animals inhabiting the northern hemisphereóBirds of the Post-PlioceneóMammalia of the Post-PlioceneóClimate of the Post-Glacial period as deduced from the Post-Glacial MammalsóOccurrence of the bones and implements of Man in Post-Pliocene deposits in association with the remains of extinct MammaliaóLiterature relating to the Post-Pliocene period.

CHAPTER XXIII.

The succession of life upon the globeóGradual and successive introduction of life-formsóWhat is meant by "lower" and "higher" groups of animals and plantsóSuccession in time of the great groups of animals in the main corresponding with their zoological orderóIdentical phenomena in the vegetable kingdomóPersistent types of lifeóHigh organisation of many early formsóBearings of Palśontology on the general doctrine of Evolution.

Mars Geology

Map projections

Space for Oceanography

Organizations

Geography

Marine biology

Earth

Math for life
CONTENTS
Topics
1. Units and Conversions
2. Exponents and Powers of Ten
3. Reading and Reporting Numerical Data
4. Making Solutions
5. pH and Buffers
6. Rates, Reaction Rates, and Q10
7. Mapping Genes
8. Punnett Squares
9. Radioactive Dating
Reference Tables
The Greek Alphabet/Symbols
Numerical Prefixes
Units
Constants
Useful Formulas
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Microscopy Math
The Laws of Thermodynamics
A Biologistís Periodic Table
Biologically Important Elements
Molecular Weight and Formula Weight
Buffers
Functional Groups
Genetic Code
Biological Macromolecules
Biochemical Reactions
Evolutionary Time
environmental geology

Welcome to Geology 101 Lab!

Unique Planet

Systems

Iihtiology

 –ņҬő… Ō–ő√»Ń

Historical Geology and Paleontology
Geologic Time
Age of the Earth

Radiometric Dating

Sedimentary Rocks Sandstone Interpretation Carbonate Rocks - http://facstaff.gpc.edu/~pgore/geology/geo102.htm

Earth Sciences: Geology: Rocks and Minerals: Minerals

Earth Sciences: Geology: Rocks and Minerals

Environment: Water Resources: Groundwater

Biotechnology and ecology

Ecology

√ŚÓŽÓ„Ťˇ ŪŚŰÚŤ Ť „ŗÁŗ

Online Geology

Bio

GIS

Geography Description
http://www.crc.losrios.edu/College_Catalog/Areas_of_Study/Geography/Course_Descriptions.htm
GEOG 300
Physical Geography: Exploring Earth''''s Environmental Systems

This course investigates the interrelationships between Earth and humans, with an emphasis on natural systems (solar energy balance, weather and climate, water resources, landforms, natural hazards, vegetation, and soil). Relevant application of these elements to today''''s world is stressed to help students better understand Earth''''s physical environment as well as human-environment interaction. A field trip may be required to relate class discussions to the real world.

GEOG 301
Physical Geography Laboratory
This course provides "hands-on" study of the basic principles and concepts involved in understanding Earth''''s environment systems. Labs feature observation, collection, analysis and display of data related to the study of Earth''''s energy balance, weather and climate, vegetation, tectonic processes, landforms, and natural hazards. Additionally, labs involve geographic methods and technology, including interpretation of maps and other geographic imagery, weather instrumentation, navigation equipment such as a compass and the Global Positioning System (GPS), and other relevant computer and Internet applications. A field trip.

GEOG 302
Environmental Studies & Sustainability
This introductory course offers an interdisciplinary perspective on the major environmental problems confronting society and explores solutions directed toward producing a more sustainable future. Course topics include an introduction to environmental issues, and related values, ethics and politics; a primer on Earth system sciences, the interconnected nature of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere; a global survey of natural resources and exploitation; changing global climates; the world water crisis; the demography of human population, and contrasts between less- and more-developed countries; agricultural and food supply challenges; renewable and nonrenewable energy resources; and land use patterns and related issues. Throughout the course, human impacts on the environment, environmental impacts on human societies, and the sustainability of economies and practices at local, regional, and global scales are investigated. A field trip may be required to relate class discussions to the real world.

GEOG 305
Global Climate Change
This interdisciplinary course explores the natural and human factors causing the Earth''''s climate to change. Whether alarmed, skeptical, or just curious about climate change, this course will provide the scientific tools to analyze the evidence that climate change is a looming threat. Through lectures, readings, discussions and projects, students will examine the Earth''''s present and past climates as well as the influence of climate on the geographical distribution of plants, animals and human societies. This course is the same as BIOL 351, and only one may be taken for credit. See "Cross-Listed Courses" in the catalog.

GEOG 306
Weather and Climate
This course is an introduction to atmospheric processes including energy and moisture exchanges, atmospheric pressure, winds, and global circulation. Severe weather conditions such as hurricanes and tornadoes are also studied. World, regional, and local climates are investigated. Student work will include weather observations and analysis of atmospheric data using charts, weather maps and radar and satellite imagery from the Internet and other sources. Because this course involves the use of some quantitative concepts, students are encouraged to have fundamental algebraic skills prior to enrolling in the course.

GEOG 310
Human Geography: Exploring Earth''''s Cultural Landscapes
This course investigates the diverse patterns of human settlement, development, and movement on earth, which evolved as a result of cultural and environmental factors. Emphasis is placed on understanding global population and migration patterns, language, religion, ethnicity, political and economic systems, development issues, agriculture and urbanization.

GEOG 320
World Regional Geography
This course is a global survey of the world''''s major geographic realms: their physical environments, cultures and economies; their origins, interactions and global roles. Basic geographic concepts and ideas are used to study and compare cultures, landscapes, resources, livelihood and land use across Earth. Explanation for the globalization of culture and economy, the widening gap between rich and poor countries, and ethnic diversity in the United States and abroad is stressed throughout the course. A major goal of this course is to improve each student''''s "mental map of the world."

GEOG 322
Geography of California
This course investigates California''''s physical, cultural, and economic environments, analyzing cardinal changes resulting from both natural and human interaction. The emphasis is on cultural diversity, human alteration of the landscape, and contemporary problems resulting from accelerated competition for natural, financial, and human resources.

GEOG 331
Exploring Maps and Geographic Technologies
Maps are the most effective way to communicate spatial information. This course introduces students to the quickly changing world of maps (both hard-copy and digital) and geographic techniques and technologies such as map and aerial photograph interpretation, spreadsheet operations, basic statistics, cartography, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), Internet mapping, remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) that aid in data collection, analysis and presentation.

GEOG 335
Introduction to Geographic Information Systems Applications
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are computer-based tools that are used to generate spatial data in order to make a decision. Through the use of ArcGIS software, this course establishes an understanding of GIS, its applications, and functionality. Students build a foundation of theory and techniques for GIS functionality, data formats and input, spatial analysis, data presentation and manipulation, and map production. Students will learn many of the functions of GIS. This course is not open to students who have received credit for GEOG 335.1, 335.2, and 335.3.

GEOG 335.1
Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are computer-based tools that are used to generate spatial data in order to make a decision. Through the use of ArcGIS software, this course establishes a basic understanding of GIS, its applications, and functionality. Students build a foundation of theory and techniques for GIS functionality, data formats and input, spatial analysis, data presentation and manipulation, and map production. Students will learn many of the basic functions of GIS including presentation, symbology, and labeling of data as well as spatial data analysis and map production. This course is not open to students who have received credit for GEOG 335. See "Cross-Referenced Courses" in the catalog.

GEOG 335.2
Intermediate GIS
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are systems of computers and people used to generate spatial data in order to make a decision. Through the use of ArcGIS software, this course builds on the foundation of GIS techniques learned in Geography 335.1. Students will learn techniques for GIS data input, spatial analysis, methods of ArcGIS customization, and database management. The basics of spatial data models will be discussed. Students will learn how to input spatial data, normalize spatial data, perform spatial analysis, measure distances, and output GIS based maps.

GEOG 335.3
Projects Using GIS
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are increasingly being used by business, industry, and research institutions in place of other analysis of spatial data. This course is designed to allow students to produce projects using industry-leading GIS software and technologies. The students will work individually to plan and produce a project including data selection and input, spatial data analysis, production of output materials, and presentation of results. The types of information analyzed may include political, social, health, environmental, or economic data. The final grade will be partly based on the project produced.

GEOG 353
Introduction to the Global Positioning System (GPS)
This course introduces the Global Positioning System (GPS). Topics include basic concepts of GPS including hands-on operation of the technology, real-world applications, computer interfaces, GIS and other mapping software. A field trip may be required which could include a nominal fee.

GEOG 370
Introduction to GIS Programming
This course introduces students to programming skills in Geographic Information Systems. Fundamentals of Object Oriented Programming Languages, programming techniques in ArcView''''s Avenue and introduction to GIS application development will be covered. Students will learn how to customize the ArcView interface and create and modify commands. Students will use Avenue to integrate GIS with existing software, automate GIS operations and customize methods of GIS analysis.

GEOG 390
Field Studies In Geography
This course covers the study of geographic principles and processes in specific environments (mountains, deserts, coastal, urban, etc.). Course content will vary by destination and will include topics in physical geography, human geography, as well as an introduction to geographic tools and techniques for field research. For specific details, see the course description (s) listed in the schedule. Students will be responsible for providing their own lodging (or camping equipment) and food. Field trip (s) required. This course may be taken four times for credit under a new topic or destination.

GEOG 481
This seminar examines multicultural interpretations and use of the environment from the Native American era to modern day using various geographic regions as case studies. Interdisciplinary in approach, this course draws upon the natural sciences, humanities, and social sciences to explain how the physical environment has been interpreted, utilized, and impacted differently by various cultures through time. Two field trips are required as part of this seminar. This course is intended for academically-accomplished students, regardless of major. Enrollment is limited to Honors Program students (see catalog). This course is the same as HONOR 382 and HUM 484, and only one may be taken for credit. See "Cross-Listed Courses" in the catalog.

GEOG 482
Honors Seminars in Geography are special one-unit intensive courses for academically accomplished students or those with the potential for high academic achievement. In these seminars, students will study advanced topics from the area of Geography. Enrollment is limited to Honors Program students (see catalog). This course is the same as HONOR 384. This course, under either name, may be taken a total of four times for credit on different topics. See "Cross-Listed Courses" in the catalog.

GEOG 495
Independent Studies in Geography

GEOG 499
Experimental Offering in Geography

Geology Description
http://www.public.iastate.edu/~catalog/2007-2009/courses/geol.html
Geol 365. On-site inspection of various ore deposits, mining operations, and terrains dominated by igneous or metamorphic rocks.

Geol 509. Field Methods in Hydrogeology. Introduction to field methods used in groundwater investigations. In-field implementation of pumping tests, slug tests, monitoring well installation and drilling techniques, geochemical and water quality sampling, seepage meters, minipiezometers, stream gaging, electronic instrumentation for data collection, and geophysics. Field trips to investigate water resource, water quality, and remediation projects.

Geol 511. Hydrogeology. Physical principles of groundwater flow, nature and origin of aquifers and confining units, well hydraulics, groundwater modeling, and contaminant transport. Lab emphasizes applied field and laboratory methods for hydrogeological investigations.

Geol 514. Applied Groundwater Flow Modeling. Introduction to the principles of modeling groundwater flow systems. Finite-difference and analytic-element methods, spreadsheet models, boundary conditions, calibration, sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, particle tracking, and post-audit analysis. Application of MODFLOW to regional flow-system analysis. Computer laboratory emphasizes assigned problems that illustrate topics discussed in the course.

Geol 515. Paleoclimatology. Four courses in biological or physical science. Introduction to mechanisms that drive climate, including the interplay between oceanic and atmospheric circulation and fluctuation in Earth''''s orbital parameters. Examination and analysis of past climate records ranging from historical documentation to ecological and geochemical proxies (e.g. tree ring analysis; O and C isotopes of skeletal carbonates and soils). Dating methods used to constrain and correlate climatic periods; utility of computer models to reconstruct past climates and predict future climate change. Emphasis placed on paleoclimatology and paleoecology of the late Quaternary (last ~ 1 million years).

Geol 519. Environmental Geochemistry. Geochemistry of natural waters and water-rock interactions. Acid-base equilibria, carbonate chemistry and buffer systems, mineral dissolution and precipitation, sorption, ion exchange, and redox reactions. Introduction to thermodynamics and kinetics. Laboratory emphasizes chemical analysis of waters and computer modeling.

Geol 526. Stable Isotopes in the Environment. Introduction to the theory, methods and applications of stable isotopes. Primary focus on the origin, natural abundance, and fractionation of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen isotopes. Applications of isotopic occurrence for elucidation of physical, chemical, biological, and environmental processes. Effects of plant physiology, photosynthesis, trophic structure, diffusion, evaporation, chemical precipitation, soil and atmospheric processes, and environmental factors on isotope abundance.

Geol 534. Contaminant Hydrogeology. Theory and practical considerations of fate and transport of solutes through porous geologic materials. Organic and inorganic contaminants in industrial and agricultural settings. Subsurface microbiology and biodegradation of aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Investigation of coupled processes (diffusion, advection, dispersion, sorption, and biodegradation) using computer models. Soil and groundwater monitoring and remediation strategies.

Geol 542. Optical Mineralogy. Introduction to using the microscope for mineral identification. Optical properties of minerals in immersion oils and in thin section. Research project required.

Geol 551. Applied and Environmental Geophysics. Seismic, gravity, magnetic, resistivity, electromagnetic, and ground-penetrating radar techniques for shallow subsurface investigations and imaging. Data interpretation methods. Lab emphasizes computer interpretation packages. Field work with seismic-and resistivity-imaging systems and radar.

Geol 552. GIS for Geoscientists. Introduction to geographic information systems (GIS) with particular emphasis on geoscientific data. Uses ESRI''''s ArcGIS Desktop Software and extension modules. Emphasizes typical GIS operations and analyses in the geosciences to prepare students for advanced GIS courses.

Geol 555. Soil Clay Mineralogy. Structure and behavior of clay minerals in soil environments, with emphasis on layer silicates and on Fe, Mn, and Al oxides.

Geol 555L. Soil Clay Mineralogy Laboratory. Application of X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and chemical analyses to identification and behavior of clay minerals in soils.

Geol 557. Exploration Seismology. Physics of elastic-wave propagation. Seismic surveys in environmental imaging, engineering, and petroleum exploration. Reflection and refraction techniques. Data collection, processing, and geological interpretation. Field work with state-of-the-art equipment.

Geol 574. Glacial and Quaternary Geology. The study of the depositional and erosional processes of glaciers using modern glacier analogs and landforms. Discussion of glaciology, glacier hydrology, Quaternary history and stratigraphy, paleoclimatology, and causes of glaciation. Laboratory emphasizes aerial photo and topographic map interpretation and the Quaternary stratigraphy of Iowa..

Geol 579. Surficial Processes. Study of surficial processes in modern and ancient geological environments. Topics include weathering, sediment transport, and landform genesis with emphasis on fluvial, glacial, hillslope, eolian, and coastal processes. Applications to engineering and environmental problems. Laboratory emphasizes aerial photo and topographic map interpretation.

Geol 583. Environmental Biogeochemistry. Biological, chemical, and physical phenomena controlling material, energy, and elemental fluxes in the environment. Interactions of life with and effects on environmental systems.

Geol 590.
A. Surficial Processes
B. Stratigraphy
C. Sedimentation
D. Paleontology
E. Petrology
F. Structural Geology
G. Geochemistry
H. Hydrogeology
I. Earth Science
J. Mineral Resources
K. Geophysics
L. Mineralogy
M. Tectonics
N. Paleoecology and Paleoclimatology
O. Isotope Geochemistry
P. Computational Methods and GIS


Geol 610.
A. Earth Materials
B. Economic Geology
C. Environmental Geochemistry
D. Geophysics
E. Geotectonics
F. Hydrogeology
G. Surficial Processes
H. Sedimentation and Stratigraphy
I. Paleoecology and Paleoclimatology
J. Isotope Geochemistry
K. Computational Methods and GIS

Geol 699. Research.
A. Surficial Processes
B. Stratigraphy
C. Sedimentation
D. Paleontology
E. Petrology
F. Structural Geology
G. Geochemistry
H. Hydrogeology
I. Earth Science
J. Mineral Resources
K. Geophysics
L. Mineralogy
M. Tectonics
N. Paleoecology and Paleoclimatology
O. Isotope Geochemistry
P. Computational Methods and GIS

Geology Description
Geol 100. The Earth. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S.SS. How does the earth work, what is it made of, and how does it change through time? Plate tectonics, Earth materials, landforms, structures, climate, and natural resources. Emphasis on the observations and hypotheses used to interpret earth system processes. Students may also enroll in Geol 100L.

Geol 100L. The Earth: Laboratory. (0-2) Cr. 1. F.S. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 100. Characterization of rocks and minerals; interpretation of structures and landforms.

Geol 101. Environmental Geology: Earth in Crisis. (Cross-listed with Env S). (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S. An introduction to geologic processes and the consequences of human activity from local to global scales. Discussion of human population growth, resource depletion, pollution and waste disposal, global warming and ozone depletion, desertification, and geologic hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, flooding, and volcanism.

Geol 102. History of the Earth. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: 100 or 201. The Earth''s physical and biological evolution; concepts of global tectonics. Methods used to decipher earth history. Students majoring in geology must also enroll in Geol 102L.

Geol 102L. History of the Earth: Laboratory. (0-2) Cr. 1. S. Prereq: Credit or enrollment in 102. Introduction to the use of sedimentary rocks and fossils in reconstructing the Earth''s history.

Geol 108. Introduction to Oceanography. (Cross-listed with Env S). (3-0) Cr. 3. F. Introduction to study of the oceans. Ocean exploration. Waves and currents. Shape, structure, and origin of the ocean basins. Sedimentary record of oceanic life. Composition of seawater and its significance for life. Ocean circulation and its influence on climate. Life of the oceans, including coral reefs. Use and misuse of ocean resources. Anthropogenic impacts on the oceanic environment.

Geol 201. Geology for Engineers and Environmental Scientists. (2-2) Cr. 3. F. Introduction to Earth materials and processes with emphasis on engineering and environmental applications.

Geol 290. Independent Study. Cr. 2-4. Repeatable. Prereq: Permission of instructor.

Geol 298. Cooperative Education. Cr. R. F.S.SS. Prereq: 100 or 201, 100L, 102, 102L, and permission of the department cooperative education coordinator; sophomore classification. Required of all cooperative education students. Students must register for this course prior to commencing the work period.

Geol 302. Summer Field Studies. Cr. 6. SS. Prereq: 102, 356, 368. Geologic mapping; structural, stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and geomorphic analyses. Study areas include world-class dinosaur localities. A 6-week summer field course required of all geology majors. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Geol 304I. Physical Geology. (Cross-listed with Ia LL, EnSci). Cr. 4. Alt. SS., offered 2008. Landscape development as a product of geologic materials and processes. Emphasis on field studies of composition of the earth, glaciation, weathering, erosion, and sedimentation.

Geol 306. Geology Field Trip. Cr. 1-2. Repeatable. F.S. Prereq: 100 or 201, permission of instructor. Geology of selected regions studied by correlated readings followed by a field trip to points of geologic interest. Ten-day field trip required.

Geol 311. Mineralogy and Earth Materials. (3-6) Cr. 5. F. Prereq: 100 or 201, Chem 163. Introduction to mineral classification, elementary crystal chemistry, crystal morphology, mineral stability, and associations. Laboratory problems in mineral identification methods, including hand-specimen identification, optical microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Nonmajor graduate credit.

Geol 324. Energy and the Environment. (Cross-listed with Env S, Mteor). (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Renewable and non-renewable energy resources. Origin, occurrence, and extraction of fossil fuels. Nuclear, wind, and solar energy. Energy efficiency. Environmental effects of energy production and use, including air pollution, acid precipitation, groundwater contamination, nuclear waste disposal, and global climate change. Geol 324 does not count toward credits required in the Geology major.

Geol 356. Structural Geology. (3-6) Cr. 5. S. Prereq: 100 or 201; Phys 111, Math 165 or 181. Principles of stress and strain. Brittle and ductile behavior of rocks. Description and classification of joints, faults, folds, fractures, foliation, and lineation. Plate tectonics and regional geology. Laboratory includes application of geometrical techniques to solve structural problems; emphasizes map interpretation and use of stereonet and computer methods.

University of California, Davis Land, Water
http://lawr.ucdavis.edu/classes/ers104/labs/lab4/lab4_1/lab4.1.html
http://lawr.ucdavis.edu/
Atmospheric Science
Hydrology
Soils & Biogeochemistry

http://lawr.ucdavis.edu/undergrad_atm.htm - Atmospheric Science
Atmospheric science is the study of the layer of air that surrounds the planet. It includes all weather phenomena, such as frontal systems and clouds, as well as severe weather events such as hurricanes and tornadoes. Concerns regarding the effects of human activity on the quality of the air we breathe, and on possible global warming are also central to this field of study.

The Program. Modern meteorology is a quantitative science that is becoming increasingly computer oriented. In addition to the study of daily weather events, the program deals with fundamental physical processes that involve the general circulation of the atmosphere; mass and energy transfers at the planetary surface and within the atmosphere; solar and terrestrial radiation; atmospheric interaction with the biosphere; climate variations; air pollution meteorology; and developments in modern meteorological instrumentation. As well as providing a broad background in meteorology, the major includes an informal minor area to be chosen from mathematics, computer science, environmental studies, resource management or a physical or biological science.

UCD Atmospheric Science offers excellent opportunities for students. Small class sizes foster student-instructor interaction. Students can pursue topics in observations, instrumentation, theory, modeling and computation.

Our Bachelor of Science program conforms to the national accreditation standards set by the National Weather Service and the American Meteorological Society.

http://lawr.ucdavis.edu/undergrad_ers.htm - Environmental & Resource Science

The environmental and resource sciences major is a program for study of the biological, chemical, and physical features of environmental resources, and the economical and social considerations associated with their use, conservation, protection, and management and restoration. Students who choose this major include those with an interest in careers associated with environmental resource utilization and management, as well as those pursuing post-baccalaureate, academic, or professional training.

The Program. The curriculum for the major provides flexibility in meeting individual needs, interests, and objectives. At the same time, certain courses are required in the basic physical and biological sciences areas. Upper division general environmental resource sciences courses, a resource economics course, and a specified number of units of environmental and resource-oriented courses are required for all students in the major. Students select environmental and resource-oriented courses in consultation with and approval of the studentís adviser. Considerable care should be taken to ensure effective utilization of the flexibility of the major, and to meet individual academic and career objectives. Students may specialize their study by selecting one of the options within the major or, in consultation with their adviser, pursuing other specializations.

http://lawr.ucdavis.edu/undergrad_hyd.htm - Hydrology

The goal of the Hydrology Program is to meet the need for qualified hydrologists in the immediate and foreseeable future as identified by the National Academy of Sciences. Graduates of the program are equally ready to assume positions as practicing hydrologists with resource agencies or consulting firms or to seek advanced training at the graduate level.

The Hydrology Program offers a B.S. degree and a supplemental minor in hydrology in response to the need for a coherent hydrology curriculum. At present, the major is one of only two such programs in the country.

The Program. Hydrologists generally need strong backgrounds in physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology, geology, field methods, and computer methods. Knowledge of biology and chemistry is important for understanding modulators of water quality. Geology is essential for those working in groundwater hydrology. Field methods are necessary for observing and measuring hydrologic phenomena, and computer methods and mathematics are routinely needed for collectively analyzing field data and forecasting future system behavior.

The diverse and interdisciplinary hydrology major is designed to expose students to a broad range of hydrologic processes with course work that forms a basis for specialization in such areas as hydrobiology, hydrogeochemistry, irrigation/drainage, surface or groundwater hydrology (hydrogeology), and water management. Students in the major program complete a total of 180 units, including 72 units of rigorous course work in the natural sciences and mathematics, along with general education course work.
http://lawr.ucdavis.edu/undergrad_sws.htm - Soil & Water Science
Soil and water science is concerned with the use and protection of our land and water resources. The major teaches graduates sound scientific principles for managing soil and water resources to benefit both agriculture, forestry and the environment.

The Program. Major programs include land use, soil survey, soil management and conservation, plant nutrition, diagnostic technology, irrigation and drainage, water resources management, water quality, and related environmental problems. (For example, the emphasis on water quality would include more than the minimum number of units of physical and biological sciences, while an emphasis in resource allocation and land-use planning would include more courses in the social, political, and economic areas.)

Fossil galery
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California Geology
http://educationally.narod.ru/californiageologyphotoalbum.html
Earth Sciense
http://educationally.narod.ru/GEOlinks.html
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