Earth Science  

METEOROLOGY -
Aerosols
Air
Albedo
Climate
Conduction
Convection
Diffused light
Environmental lapse rate
Equinox (spring or autumnal)
Greenhouse effect
Heat
Inclination of the axis
Infrared
Isotherm
Mesosphere
Radiation or electromagnetic radiation
Reflection
Rotation
Scattering
Solstice (summer or winter)
Stratosphere
Temperature
Thermosphere
Tropic of cancer
Tropic of Capricorn
Troposphere
Ultraviolet
Visible light
Weather
Ozone problem
Revolution the movement in its orbit
Blizzard metel
Exceptional winter rain in California
Ozone depletion
Dust storm
Ozone distribution
Pressure changes
Mount kerkeslin
Jasper national park
Thermal structure of the atmosphere
Tropopause
Stratopause
Mesopause
Mechanisms of heat transfer conduction, convection, radiation
The hotter the radiating body, the shorter the wavelength of maximum radiation
Objects that are good absorbers of radiation are good emitters as well
Gases are selective absorbs and radiators
Reflection and scattering (rasseivanie), diffused light
Absorption
Global warming
Electrical thermometer- thermistor

Absolute nstability/stability
Adiabatic temperature change
Advection fog
Calorie
Cirrus
Cloud
Clouds of vertical development
Condensation
Condensation nuclei
Condensation instability
Convergence
Cumulus
Deposition
Dew-point temperature
Dry adiabatic rate
Evaporation
Freezing rain
Frontal fog
Frontal wedging
Glaze
Hail
High clouds
Humidity
Hydrometer
Hydroscopic nuclei
Latent heat
Localized convective lifting
Low clouds
Middle clouds
Mixing ratio
Orographic lifting
Parcel
Precipitation fog
Radiation fog
Rain
Rainshadow desert
Relative humidity
Rime
Saturation
Sleet
Snow
Stable air
Steam fog
Stratussublimationunstable air
Upslope fog
Vapor pressurewet adiabatic rate
Downpour (liven)
Moisture and cloud formation
Ice, liquid water, and water vapor
Latent heat of melting, freezinglatent heat of fusion
Evaporation and condensation
Latent heat of vaporization
Latent heat of condensation
Sublimation and deposition
White frost
Hoar frost
Vapor pressure
Fog and dew versus cloud formation
Adiabatic temperature changes
Adiabatic cooling and condensation
Dry adiabatic rate
Wet adiabatic rate
Processes that lift air
Orographic lifting
Frontal wedging
Convergence
Localized convective lifting
Takla makan
Absolute instability
Conditional instability
Types of clouds
Cirrocumulus
Cirrostratus
Cirrus
Altocumulus
Altjstratus
Numbostrarus
Stratus
Stratocumulus
Cumulus fair weather
Cumulonimbus
Fogs caused by cooling
Advection fog
Radiation fog
Upslope fog
Advection fog into san Francisco bay
Evaporation fogs
Steam fog
Frontal or precipitation fog
Precipitation
Ice crystal process
Collision-coalescence process
Forms of precipitation
Rain and drizzle
Snow
Sleet inei, and glaze naled, freezing rain, hail grad, rime
Measuring precipitation
Measuring snowfall







Air pressure
Measuring air pressure
Barometer
Mercury barometer
Aneroid barometer
Aneroid barograph
Solar radiation
Pressure-gradient force
Isobars
Coriolis effect
The geostrophic wind
Friction with earth surface
Surface wind effect of friction
Ceclonic and anticyclonic wind
General circulation of the atmosphere
Circulation on a nonrotating earth
Convection system
Equatorial low
Subtropical high
Trade winds
Polar easterlies
Subpolar low
Polar front
Polar high
Doldrums
Hadley cell
Influence of continents
The westerlies
Local winds
Sea breese
Land breesemountain and valley breese
Chinook and santa ana winds
Wind speed
Cup anemometer
Prevailing wind
Wind vane
Wind roses
Jet stream
Convergence
Divergence
Pressure tendency
Relative humidity and dew-point table

Air mass
Air-mass weather
Arctic air mass
Cold front
Continental air mass
Doppler radiar
Eye
Eye wall
Front
Hurricane
Lake-effect snow
Maritime air mass
Middle-latitude midlatitude cyclone
Occluded front
Overrunning
Polar air mass
Saffir-simpson scale
Source region
Stationary front
Storm surge
Thunderstorm
Tornado
Tornado warning
Tornado watch
Tropical t air mass
Tropical depression
Tropical storm
Warm front
Hurricane Katrina
Nimbostratus
Altostratus
Cirrostratus
Cirrus
Cumulonimbus
Airflow aloft
Suction vortex in tornado
Hurricane formation and decey

ASTRONOMY
Absolute magnitude
Apparent magnitude
Barred spiral galaxy
Big bang
Black hole
Bright nebula
Dark nebula
Degenerate matter
Doppler effect
Elliptical galaxy
Emission nebula
Eruptive variable star
Ytrtzspring-russell h-r diagram
Hubbles law
Hydrogen burning
Interstellar dust
Irregular galaxy
Light-year
Local group
Magnitude
Main-sequence star
Nebula
Neutron star
Nova
Planetary nebula
Protostar
Pulsar
Pulsating variable star
Red giant
Reflection nebula
Spiral galaxy
Stellar parallax
Supergiant
Supernova
White dwarf
Properties of stars
Stellar evolution
Star birth
Protostar stage
Main-sequence stage
Red giant stage
Burnout and death
Death of low-mass stars
Death of medium nass stars
Death of massive stars
Stellar remnants
White dwarts
Degenerate matter
Neutron stars
Pulsar
Black holes

The milky way galaxy
Types of galaxies
Nucleus
Halo
Globular clusters
Galactic clusters

OCEANOLOGY
Sidescan towfish
Terrigenous sediment
Biogenous sediment
hydrogenous sediment
manganese nodules
calcium carbonates
metal sulfides
evaporates
seafloor sediments and climate change indirect evidence
surface circulation
gyres
sargassum
in arctic sea salts not a part of sea ice, sea water becomes more concentrated which makes it denser and prone to sink/
sand movement on the beach
movement perpendicular to the shoreline
wave refraction
longshore transport
beach drift
longshore current
upstream
dawnstream
wave erosion at gabriola island, british Columbia
wave-cut clifts, platforms,marine terrase
sea arches and sea stacks
depositional features
spits, bars, tombolos, barrier islands,
emergent coasts
submergent coasts
tidal delta

HYDROLOGY
Hudson river
External processes
Weathering
Mass westing
Erosion
Slump
Rockside
Debris flow
Earthflow
Oversteepened slope
Angle of repose
Removal of vegetation
Earthquakes and trigges
The water cycleinfiltration runoff
Transpiration
Water is the single most important agentsculpturing earths surface
Drainage basin
River systems
Streamflow
Laminar flow
incissum=to cut into
Turbulent flow
Gradient of channel characteristics
Discharage
Changes from upstream to downstream
The work of running water
Erosion
Transportation
Dissolved load
Suspended loadidening
Floodplain
Changing base level and incises meand
Bed load
Competence and capacity
Deposition
Stream channels
Bedrock channels
Alluvial channels
Meandering channels
Braided channels
Oxbow lakes
Base level and stream erosion
Ultimate base level
Local or temporary base level
Shaping stream vallies
v-shaped vallies
valley deepening
rapids
waterfall
valley widening
floodplain
changing base lavel and incised meanders
depositional landforms
bars
natural levees
canyonland national park
dendritic pattern
rectangular
trellis
flash floods
artificial levees
channelization
artificial cutoff
a nonstructural approach
distribution and movement of groundwater
three finger cave Lincoln county nm
spring in Arizona marble canyon
hot springs
geysers
drawdown
cone of depression
treating groundwater as a nonrenewable resource
land subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal
groundwater contamination
dripstone
Adirondack state park

Alluvium
Angle of repose
Aquifer
Aquitard
Artesian well
Backswamp
Bar
Base level
Bed load
Braided channels
Capacity
Cavern
Competence
Cone of depression
Cutoff
Delta
Dendritic pattern
Discharge
Dissolved load
Distributary
Divide
Drainage basin
Drawdown
Erosion
External process
Flood
Floodplain
Geyser
Gradient
Groundwater
Hot spring
Incised meander
Infiltration
Internal process
Karst topography
Laminar flow
Mass wasting
Meander
Natural levee
Oxbow lake
Permeability
Porosity
Radial pattern
Rectangular pattern
Runoff
Sinkhole
Sorting
Spring
Stalactite
Stalagmite
Stream valley
Suspended load
Transpiration
Trellis pattern
Turbulent flow
Unsaturated zonewater cycle
Water table
Weathering
Well yazoo tributary zone of saturation

GLACIOLOGY
Chigmin mountains
Lake clark national park Alaska
Malaspina glacier s Alaska
Glacier national park Montana
Tracy arm Alaska
Saint elias national park Alaska
Valley (Alpine) glacier
Ice sheets
Ice caps
Piedmont glaciers
The movement of glacial ice is flow
Plastic movement
Ice is brittle solid until pressure above 50 v
Slising movement
The uppermost zone above 50m zone of fracture.
When the glacier moves over irregular terrain, the zone of fracture is subjected to tension, resulting in cracks called crevasses
Below 50m plastic flow seals them off
Observing and measuring movement
Budget of a glacier accumulation versus wastage
Zone of accumulation
Snowline
Crevasses
Zone of wastage
Iceberg formed by calving
Terminus of glacier
How glaciers erode
Plucking
Abrasion
Rock flour
Glacial striation
Landsforms created by glacial erosion
Glaciated valleys
Glacial trough
Handing valleys
Cirques
Artes and hornstarn
Pater noster lakes
Main glacier
Medial moraine
u-shaped valley
fiords
glatial till
types of glacial drift
stratified drift
glacial erratics
moraines, outwash plains, kettles
lateral and medial moraines
end moraines and ground moraines
outwash plains and valley trains
kettles
kettle lake
drumlins
eskers
kames
retreating glacier
glaciers of the ice age
Pleistocene epoch

DESERTS
Arizonas organ pipe cactus national monuments
Ajo mountains
Desert
Steppe
Great basin
Mojave
Sonoran
Chihuahuan
Atacama
Patagonian
Sahara
Namib
Kalahari
Arabian
Iranian
Turkestan
Great Indian
Gobi
Great sandy
Simpson
The role of water in arid climate
Ephemeral streams
Arizonas organ pipe cactus national monument
The ajo mountains
Deflation
Blowouts
Desert pavement
Saltation
Wind abrasion
Loess
Sand dunes
Slip face
Cross beds



British Columbia
Month robson

MINERALOGY
Charoit
Atom
Atomic number
Chemical compound
Cleavage
Color
Covalent bond
Dencity
Electron
Element
Energy levels
Fracture
Habit
Hardness
Ionic bond
Ions
Isotope
Luster
Mass number
Mineral
Mineralogy
Mineral resource
Mohs scale
Neutron
Nonsilicate
Nucleus
Ore
Periodic table
Principal shell
Proton
Radioactive decay
Reserve
Rock
Silicates
Silicon-oxygen tetrahedron
Specific gravity
Streak
Tenacity
Valence electronsssesses an orderly crystalline structure and well defined chelical composition
Natural occurring
Solid
Orderly crystalline structure
Well=defined chemical composition
Generally inorganic
Electron cloud
Ionic bonds electronic transferred
Optical properties light, color, ctreak
Metallic luster
Submetallic luster
Nonmetallic luster
Vitreous or glassy luster
Dull or earthy luster
Pearly luster
Silky luster
Greasy luster like oil
Opaque
Translucent
Crystal shape or habit
Mineral strength
Tenacity
Hardness
Cleavage
Fracture
Brittle or shatter
Malleable
Sectile
Elastic
Banded
Botryidal
Bladed
Prismatic
The number of cleavage planes and the angle at which they meet
Fracture
Conchoidal fracture
Density and specific gravity
Double rafraction
Conchoidal fracture
Only 8 rlements compose minerals
Silicate minerals
Common nonsilicate mineral groups
Grand saline, texas
Minerals occurring in inorganic solid that pa

PETROGRAPHY
Andesitic (intermediate) composition
Basaltic composition
Bowens reaction series
Chemical sedimentary rocks
Chemical weathering
Talus slope
The chemical weathering of granite produce clay minerals along with potassium ions and silica, which enters into sodium
Coarse-grained texture
Contact (thermal) metamorphism
Compacted and cemented sediments
Classifying sedimentary rocks
Detritusedimentary rocks
Chemical sedimentary rocks
Conglomerate
Breccia
Sandstone
Shale
Siltstone
Biochemical sediments
Limestone
Coquina
Chalk
Travertine
Rock gypsum
Salt flats
Rock salt
Rock gypsum
Agate
Flint
Jasper
Chert
Strata or beds the mostcharacteristic feature of sedimentary rocks
Bedding planes
Bonneville salt flats
White chalk clift
Detrital s
Crystallization
Crystal settling
Detrital sedimentary rock
Evaporite deposit
Extrusive volcanic
Felsic
Fine-grained texture
Porphiric texture
Glassy texture
Granitic felsic rocks
Basaltic mafic rocks
Andesitic intermediate rocksmagmatic differentiation
Foliated texture
Fossil
Glassy texture
Granitic composition
Igneous rock
Intrusive-plutonic
Lava
Lithification
Mafic
Magma
Magmatic differentiation
Mechanical weathering
Frost wedging
Unloading
Biological activity
Metamorphic rock
Metamorphism
Parebt rock
Low-grade methamorphism
High-grade methamorphism
Thermal or contact metamorphism
Regional mephamorphism
Agents of methamorphism
Ripple marks
Mud cracks
Anza Borrego desert state park
Pressure (stress) as a metamorphic agents
Differential stress
Ductile
Chemical active fluids
Minerals tend to recristallize and grow longer in direction perpendicular to compressional stress
Metamorphic textures
Brittle
Foliated texture
Nonfiliated texture
Marble
Common mwthamorphic rocks
FoliTED ROCKS
Slate
Schist
Mica schist
Gneiss
Quartzite
Nonfoliated texture
Porphyric texture
Regional metamorphism
Rock cycle
Sediment
Sedimentary rock
Strata-beds
Texture
Ultramafic composition
Weathering

PLATE TECTONICS
Continental drift
C0ntinental volcanic arc
Curie point
Fossil magnetism
Fracture zone
Magnetic reversal
Magnetic time scale
Magnetometer
Ridge push
Slab pull

VOLCANOLOGY
Aa flow
Batholit
Caldera
Cinder cone
Columnar joint
Composite cone
Conduit
Continental volcanic arc
Crater
Dike
Fissure
Fissure eruption
Flood basalt
Fumarole
Hot spot
Intraplate volcanism
Island arc
Laccolith
Lahar
Nuee argente
Pahoehoe flow
Parasitic cone
Pipe
Pluton
Pyroclastic flow
Pyroclastic materials
Scoria cone
Shield volcfno
Sill
Stratovolcano
Vent
Viscosity
Volatilesvolcanic island arc
Volcanic neck
Kilauea
Loihi
Mauna loa
Hualalai
Mauna kea
Haeakala
Molokai
maui
volcano
a magmas viscosity
silica content
pyroclastic material
aa flow slow moving lava
ach dust
welded tuff
lapilli
cinders
blocks
bombs
anatomy of a volcano
conduit
pipe
crater
calderas
parasitic cone
shield volcanoes
mauna loa
puu oo
cinder cone
scoria cone
sp crater, a cinder cone north of flagstaff Arizona
paricutim mexico
east rift zone Kilauea Hawaii
composite cones
stratovolcanoes ring of fire
lauca national park chili
piroclastic flow
mudflows on active and inactive cones
lahar
calderas
crater lake Oregon type calderras
Hawaiian type calderas
Yellowstone type calderas
Fissure eruptions
Lava plateaus
Columbia river basalts
Flood basalts
Volcanic pipes
Necks
Ship rock nm
Dikes
Sills and loccalithcolumnar joints
Batholith
Cleveland volcano aluetian

SEISMOLOGY
Earthquake and fault
Focus
Epicenternitude
Wave front
Cause of earthquake
Elastic rebound
Foreshocks and aftershock
Seismology
Seismograph
Surface waves
Body waves
Primary p waves
Secondary s wavws
A travel-time graph
The size of earthquake
Intensity
Magnitude
Intensity schale
Modified mercally intensity scale
Magnitude scale
Richter magnitude
Moment magnitude
Structural damage from seismick vibrations
Amplification of seismic waves
Liquification
Mud volcano
Sand volcano
Tsunami
Tsunami damage from December 26 2004 indonesian earthquake
Landslides and ground subsidence
Fire
Turnagain heights slide 1964 alaskan earthquake
Formation of earth layered structure
Earths inner structure

STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY
Rock deformation
Elastic deformation
Brittle deformation
Ductile deformation
Brittle failure
Brittle deformation
Folds
Anticline
Sincline
Domas
Basins
Black hills south Dakota
Faults
Fault zone
Dip-slip faults
Fault scarp
Month kidd Alberta Canada
Kanab utah
Reverse faults
Thrust faults
Strick-slip faults
Transform faults
Mountain building
Karakorumcharakusa valley
Mountains building at subduction zones
Collisional mountain ranges








Seafloor sediments and climate Change
The studuing of seafloor sediments is an indirect method of climate changing. When near-surface organisms die,their tests slowly settle onto the ocean floor, where they can become buried and preserved over time. Numerous near-surface organisms (foraminifers) are very sensitive to variations in water temperature and a climate change, ocean circulation change, the timing of major extinction events and other environmental changes.
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